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Fig. 4 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 4

From: Neuroprotection and spatial memory enhancement of four herbal mixture extract in HT22 hippocampal cells and a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia

Fig. 4

Protective effect of PMC-12 on ROS generation in glutamate-treated HT22 cells. Cells were pretreated with 0.01, 0.1, 1, or 10 μg/ml of PMC-12 for 24 h, followed by exposure to 5 mM glutamate for 24 h. The oxidation sensitive fluorescence dye, carboxy-H2DCFDA (20 μM), was used in measurement of ROS levels. Production of ROS was analyzed using a fluorescence plate reader (a) and fluorescence microscope (b). In addition, apoptotic nuclei were observed after staining with Hoechst 33342 for detection of apoptosis morphologically (b). ###P < 0.001 vs. control; **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001 vs. glutamate-treated cells. All data are represented as the mean ± SEM of three independent experiments. Scale bars = 50 μm

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