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Table 6 Resistance modulating effect of the methanol leaves extract from Combretum molle at its sub-inhibitory concentrations on selected

From: Antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modifying activity of the extracts from allanblackia gabonensis, combretum molle and gladiolus quartinianus against Gram-negative bacteria including multi-drug resistant phenotypes

Antibioticsa Extract concentrations MDR Bacteria used % Modulating effectb
E. coli E. aerogenes K. pneumoniae P. stuartii P. aeruginosa
AG100 AG102 AG100Tet CM64 EA289 EA298 K24 NEA16 PA124
AMP 0 - - - - - - - - -  
MIC/2 -(NA) -(NA) -(NA) -(NA) -(NA) -(NA) -(NA) -(NA) -(NA) 0
MIC/4 -(NA) -(NA) -(NA) -(NA) -(NA) -(NA) -(NA) -(NA) -(NA) 0
CHL 0 8 32 64 256 128 64 64 64 64  
MIC/2 8(1) 16 (2) 32(2) 256(1) 64(2) 8(8) 64(1) 16(4) 32(2) 66.65
MIC/4 8(1) 32(1) 64(1) 256(1) 64(2) 32(2) 64(1) 32(2) 32(2) 44.44
CIP 0 ≤0.5 ≤0.5 128 64 128 1 128 1 32  
MIC/2 ≤0.5(NA) ≤0.5 64(2) 64(1) 128(1) 1(1) 64(2) 1(1) 16(2) 33.33
MIC/4 ≤0.5(NA) ≤0.5 64(2) 64(1) 128(1) 1(1) 64(2) 1(1) 16(2) 33.33
NFX 0 ≤0.5 ≤0.5 256 - 128 8 - 4 128  
MIC/2 ≤0.5(NA) ≤0.5 128(2) 64(>4) 128(1) 8(1) -(NA) 4(1) 64(2) 33.33
MIC/4 ≤0.5(NA) ≤0.5 256(1) 64(>4) 128(1) 8(1) -(NA) 4(1) 64(2) 22.22
KAN 0 64 4 8 2 16 32 4 16 128  
MIC/2 4(16) 4(1) 4(2) ≤0.5(>4) 2(8) 32(1) 2(2) 4(4) 64(2) 77.78
MIC/4 8(8) 4(1) 4(2) 1(2) 4(4) 32(1) 2(2) 8(2) 64(2) 77.78
STR 0 >64 - - 4 16 32 4 32 64  
MIC/2 >64(NA) 256 (≥2) 4(>64) 1(4) 4(4) 16(2) 1(4) 8(4) 32(2) 88.89
MIC/4 >64(NA) - 128(>2) 2(2) 4(4) 32(1) 2(2) 16(2) 32(2) 66.67
ERY 0 32 64 - - 64 16 128 16 128  
MIC/2 8(4) 64(1) 256(>1) -(NA) 64(1) 4(4) 128(1) 4(4) 64(2) 44.44
MIC/4 8(4) 64(1) -(NA) -(NA) 64(1) 16(1) 128(1) 8(2) 128(1) 22.22
TET 0 2 8 32 16 32 4 16 4 16  
MIC/2 ≤0.5(>4) 2(4) 8(4) 4(4) 8(4) 2(2) 8(2) 2(2) 4(4) 100
MIC/4 1(2) 8(1) 32(1) 8(2) 8(4) 2(2) 8(2) 2(2) 4(4) 77.78
  1. a: Antibiotics (TET: tetracycline, KAN: kanamycin, STR: streptomycin, ERY: erythromycin, CHL: chloramphenicol, NFX: norfloxacin, CIP: ciprofloxacin, AMP: ampicillin; - : MIC not detected at up to 256 μg/mL; (): Modulation factor or gain of activity; b: Percentage of Antibiotic’s modulation Activity by the Plant extracts; Indications in bold represent the modulation factor ≥ 2, antibiotics having a percentage of modulating effect greather than 50 %; NA: Not applicable