Effect of VALE/OA on cell surface marker expression and cytokine release of polarized macrophages. Macrophages were polarized with cytokines (IL-4/IL-13) for M2 or co-cultured with tumour cells (MCF-7 or NCI-H460) and then cultured with VALE 25 μg/ml or OA 2.5 μg/ml for 3 days before analysis of cell surface markers and cytokines. In cells treated with VALE, CD11b and CD40, measurement, using APC-labelled antibodies, could not be analysed because VALE generated fluorescence artefacts. Mean data of 5 independent experiments represent the expression level relative to the untreated control (mean ± SE, arbitrary units). *p < 0.05 compared to the control (LSD-test).