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Table 1 Evaluation of multi-drug resistant bacterial isolates

From: Alkanna tinctoria leaves extracts: a prospective remedy against multidrug resistant human pathogenic bacteria

Antibiotics Bacteria (zone diameter nearest whole mm)
A. baumannii E. coli P. aeruginosa S. aureus
R I S R I S R I S R I S
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors             
Amoxicillin 0 - - 0 - - 0 - - 0 - -
Amoxycillin/Clavulanic acid - 15 ± 1 - 0 - - 7 ± 0 - - 6.5 ± 0 - -
Ampicillin 7 ± 0.28 - - 0 - - 0 - - 0 - -
Aztreonam 7 ± 0.11 - - 0 - - 0 - - 0 - -
Cefepime - - 24 ± 0.5 15 ± 0.5 - - - 15 ± 0.3 - - 15 ± 0.5 -
Cefixime - - 20 ± 0.5 - - 19 ± 0.7 - 18 ± 0.3 - 10 ± 0 - -
Cefotaxime 7 ± 0 - - 14 ± 0.5 - - 0 - - 7 ± 0 - -
Ceftazidime - 19 ± 0.7 - 14 ± 0.5 - - 7 ± 03 - - - 15 ± 0.3 -
Ceftriaxone 12 ± 0.5 - - - 16 ± 0.5 - 7 ± 0 - - 10 ± 0.3 - -
Cephradine (only for S. aureus) NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 6.5 ± 0 - -
Fosfomycin - - 22 ± 0.5 - - 24 ± 0.5 - - 30 ± 1 - - -
Imipenem 10 ± 0.5 - - - - 23 ± 0.7 10 ± 0 - - - 15 ± 0.7 -
Meropenem 10 ± 0.5 - - 8 ± 0 - - 7 ± 0 - - 7 ± 0 - -
Oxacillin (only for S. aureus) NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0 - -
Pipracillin/Tazobactam - - 27 ± 1 - - 18 ± 1 14 ± 0.5 - - 14 ± 0.3 - -
Vancomycin (only for S. aureus) NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 9 ± 0.3 - -
Cell membrane inhibitors             
Colistin sulphate 0 - - - - 12 ± 0.3 - - 11 ± 0.3 10 ± 0 - -
Protein synthesis inhibitors             
Amikacin - 15 ± 0.3 - - 15 ± 0.5 - 9 - - 7 ± 0 - -
Chloramphenicol NA NA NA NA NA NA 12 ± 0.5 - - 9 ± 0 - -
Doxycycline - 13 ± 0.5 - - - 14 ± 0.5 7 ± 0.3 - - 10 ± 0.3 - -
Erythromycin 0 - - 7 ± 0 - - 7 ± 0 - - 8 ± 0 - -
Gentamycin 9 ± 0.28 - - - - 15 ± 0.5 9 ± 0 - - 10 ± 0.3 - -
Tetracycline 7 ± 0 - - - - 18 ± 0.3 0 - - 7 ± 0 - -
Tigecyclin - - 19 ± 0.7 - 18 ± 0.5 - - 15 ± 0.5 - - 15 ± 0.5 -
DNA inhibitors             
Ciprofloxacin 15 ± 0.5 - - - - 22 ± 0.5 12 ± 0.5 - - 11 ± 0.3 - -
Nitrofurantoin - 15 ± 0.5 - 8 ± 0.3 - - 0 - - 8 ± 0 - -
Folate pathway inhibitors             
Trimethoprim/Sulphamethoxazole 0 - - - 11 ± 0 - 0 - - 0 - -
  1. ± = standard error of given value, – = not observed, NA = not applicable R = resistant, I = intermediate sensitive and S = sensitive.