Extracellular electrophysiological records from the excitatory CRH-like neurons in PVN (after noxious heat stimulus or Inj., 8-min). The left figures showed the representative neuronal activities in PVN under the different stimulus. The statistical analysis of the spikes of the corresponding neurons was illustrated on the right column, in which, the white histograms recorded the spontaneous discharges of the neurons at the unit time in PVN, and the black histograms illustrated the firing of neurons at the unit time after stimulation. The neuron firing was increased suddenly by noxious heat stimulation (A), inhibited by hydrocortisone (B), partially suppressed by testosterone (C) and slightly responded by estrogen (D). *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001 vs. spontaneous discharges of the neurons.