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Table 1 The antibacterial (MIC values in mg/mL) efficacy of plants used as remedies for the treatment of diarrhoea in northern Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

From: Antimicrobial evaluation of plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in a rural community in northern Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Plant species, family and voucher number Plant part Solvent B. cereus(ATCC 11778) E. faecalis(ATCC 29212) S. aureus(ATCC 12600) E. coli(ATCC 8739) P. vulgarius(ATCC 33420) S. typhimurium(ATCC 14028) S. flexneri(ATCC 25875) Average MIC
Acacia burkei Fabaceae Benth (MNNa-3) Bark Organic 3.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 3.00 0.25 1.54
Aqueous 0.75 1.00 1.50 1.50 3.00 3.00 1.00 1.68
Acanthospermum glabratum Asteraceae (DC) Wild (MNN-37) Whole plant Organic 0.88 4.00 4.13 6.00 8.00 2.25 0.44 3.67
Aqueous 5.33 NSb 6.67 NS NS 6.00 4.00 5.50
Brachylaena Transvaalensis Asteraceae E. Phillips & Schweick. (MNN-30) Leaves Organic NS NS NS NS NS NS 4.00 4.00
Aqueous 0.25 1.07 1.25 2.00 1.75 1.25 0.50 1.15
Catharanthus roseus Apocynaceae (L.) G. Don. (MNN-7) Roots Organic 0.64 1.93 3.50 3.71 4.07 4.71 0.41 2.71
Aqueous 6.00 6.00 8.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 5.33
Chenopodium ambrosioides Chenopodiaceae L. (MNN-39) Whole plant Organic 12.00 6.00 0.25 3.00 0.25 4.00 0.50 3.71
Aqueous 3.00 8.00 4.00 8.00 3.00 8.00 8.00 6.00
Cissampelos hirta Menispermaceae Klotzch (MNN-27) Whole plant Organic 2.00 0.42 1.50 8.00 2.00 1.33 0.38 2.23
Aqueous 6.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 6.86
Garcinia livingstonei Clusiaceae T. Anderson (MNN-19) Bark Organic 0.12 0.34 0.26 3.38 0.75 0.19 0.38 0.77
Aqueous 1.50 2.00 0.75 0.75 1.50 2.00 2.00 1.50
Gymnosporia senegalensis Celastraceae (Lam.) Loes. (MNN-13) Leaves Organic 0.94 0.56 2.17 6.00 11.34 0.79 0.63 3.20
Aqueous 8.00 6.00 8.00 12.00 8.00 8.00 NS 8.33
Krauseola mosambicina Caryophyllaceae (Moss.) Pax & K. Hoffm. (MNN-6) Whole plant Organic 4.80 7.20 6.80 7.20 8.60 5.50 1.40 5.93
Aqueous 8.00 5.33 8.00 8.00 8.00 6.67 6.67 7.24
Lippia javanica Verbenaceae (Burm.f.) Spreng. (MNN-20) Leaves Organic 1.00 6.00 4.00 4.00 12.00 4.00 0.50 4.50
Aqueous 8.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 6.33
Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae L. (MNN-29) Leaves Organic 0.50 0.50 1.00 1.00 0.50 2.00 0.25 0.82
Aqueous NS 6.67 2.67 NS 0.50 NS 4.00 3.46
Melia azedarach Meliaceae L. (MNN-4) Leaves Organic 2.89 1.16 1.70 4.28 1.81 2.64 0.57 2.15
Aqueous 8.00 8.00 12.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 12.00 7.43
Psidium guajava Myrtaceae L. (MNN-5) Leaves Organic 0.34 0.63 0.93 1.63 1.51 0.65 0.33 0.86
Aqueous 1.00 6.00 0.50 6.00 8.00 8.00 3.00 4.64
Sarcostemma viminale Apocynaceae (L) R. Br subsp. viminale (MNN-11) Stem Organic 1.00 8.00 4.00 16.00 16.00 2.00 0.50 6.79
Aqueous 8.00 4.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 7.43
Schotia brachypetala Fabaceae Sond. (MNN-25) Bark Organic 8.00 0.63 2.00 8.00 1.50 8.00 0.58 4.10
Aqueous 1.50 2.00 1.00 8.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 2.93
Sclerocarya birrea Anacardiaceae (A. Rich.) Hochst. subsp. caffra (Sond.) (MNN-12) Bark Organic 0.29 0.29 0.35 0.95 0.75 0.20 0.34 0.45
Aqueous 2.00 2.00 0.50 2.00 4.00 1.33 2.00 1.98
Senna occidentalis Fabaceae (L.) Link (MNN-2) Roots Organic 3.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 3.00 2.00 4.00 2.57
Aqueous 6.00 8.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 4.00 8.00 5.00
Strychnos madagascariensis Strychnaceae Pior. (MNN-9) Leaves Organic 3.00 4.00 2.88 4.00 3.25 4.75 1.00 3.27
Aqueous 8.00 8.00 8.00 6.00 8.00 8.00 6.67 7.52
Syzygium cordatum Myrtaceae Hochst. ex. C. Krauss. (MNN-36) Bark Organic 0.88 1.82 1.00 1.81 1.25 1.54 0.43 1.25
Aqueous 8.00 6.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 4.00 7.00
Terminalia sericea Combretaceae Burch. ex DC. (MNN-16) Bark Organic 0.50 0.67 0.31 1.00 0.69 0.42 0.04 0.52
Aqueous 0.38 0.50 0.75 8.00 0.50 1.00 0.67 1.69
Trichilia emetica Meliaceae Vahl (MNN-35) Bark Organic 0.25 0.16 0.25 2.00 1.00 8.00 1.33 1.86
Aqueous 6.00 8.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 12.00 4.00 5.00
Vangueria infausta Rubiaceae Burch. subsp. infausta (MNN-38) Bark Organic 8.00 3.25 1.00 8.00 6.00 3.50 1.25 4.43
Aqueous 8.00 NS 8.00 8.00 4.00 8.00 8.00 7.33
Vernonia natalensis Asteraceae (DC) Sch. Bip. ex. Walp (MNN-33) Roots Organic 4.00 4.00 4.00 2.00 0.25 4.00 8.00 3.75
Aqueous 2.00 6.00 8.00 6.00 1.50 8.00 6.00 5.36
Ciprofloxacin control (μg/mL) 0.50 0.25 0.80 0.02 0.40 0.20 0.05 0.32
  1. MNNa = MN Nkwanyana; NSb = Not susceptible at highest concentration tested. Noteworthy values depicted in bold font.