The effects of bee products on VEGF-induced migration and in vitro wound healing. A) Images of wounded monolayers of HUVEC taken at 24 h after treatment with control, VEGF alone (10 ng/ml), VEGF plus royal jelly (RJ) (300 μg/ml), VEGF plus bee pollen (300 μg/ml), VEGF plus Chinese red propolis (3 μg/ml), or VEGF plus caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) (10 μM). Scale bar represents 250 μm. Migration was estimated by measuring the cell numbers within the wounded region after treatment with VEGF (10 ng/ml) with or without (B) RJ (100 to 300 μg/ml) and GM6001 (10 μM), (C) bee pollen (100 or 300 μg/ml), (D) Chinese red propolis (1 to 3 μg/ml), or (E) CAPE (3 or 10 μM). GM represents GM6001, a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor. Data represent means ± SEM (n = 4). ##: P < 0.01 vs. Control, **: P < 0.01 vs. VEGF alone.