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Table 1 Subject characteristics according to assigned treatment group

From: Echinacea purpurea and osteopathic manipulative treatment in children with recurrent otitis media: a randomized controlled trial

  Randomized Treatment Group  
  Sham Manipulation Real Manipulation  
  Placebo Echinacea Real Echinacea Placebo Echinacea Real Echinacea Total Sample
Characteristic % % % % %
Age, years (median ± SD) 1.5 ± 0.9 1.5 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.7 1.5 ± 0.7
Ethnicity      
   White, non Hispanic 45% 41% 42% 50% 44%
   Hispanic 41 41 38 36 39
   Native American 9 14 4 - 7
   Black, non Hispanic 5 5 4 9 6
   Asian - - 8 5 3
   Other - - 4 - 1
Male gender 68 59 50 50 57
Breastfed ≥ 6 mo. 27 23 29 32 28
Sibling(s) in home 64 68 54 50 59
AOM ≥ 5× in past year 32 64 30 23 37
Daycare attendance 41 64 58 64 57
Cigarette smoke exposure 23 18 25 14 20
Total number in group N = 22 N = 22 N = 24 N = 22 N = 90