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Table 3 CAM use in chronic pain patients on opioids by patient characteristics; results from logistic regression analysis *. (The sample consists of 908 subjects receiving chronic opioid therapy)

From: CAM therapies among primary care patients using opioid therapy for chronic pain

  Adjusted Odds Ratio ** 95% Confidence Interval p-value
Variables:    
   Age (per 10 years) ** 0.73 (0.63, 0.85) <.01
   Female 2.27 (1.64, 3.14) <.01
   Education (per 4 yrs) 1.41 (1.10, 1.82) <.01
   Race:    
White 1.00 ---  
African American 0.82 (0.57, 1.18) .588
Other 0.45 (0.12, 1.75) .308
   Pain Severity 1.11 (1.01, 1.22) .026
   SF-36 physical component (per 10 points) 1.05 (0.95, 1.15) .340
   SF-36 mental component (per 10 points) 0.93 (0.85, 1.01) .092
   Total income (per $1000) 1.18 (1.06, 1.31) .05
Primary pain site:    
   Neck/upper back 2.27 (1.24, 4.14) .01
   Multiple sites 1.81 (1.05, 3.11) .033
   Headaches 1.42 (0.84, 2.40) .187
   Lower back 1.00 (0.72, 1.39) .995
   Others 1.00 ---  
Cocaine tox screen negative 1.84 (1.01, 3.36) .047
  1. * This table reports the adjusted odds ratio for each variable included in the analysis. The odds ratios in this table are adjusted for all variables listed in table 3, using a logistic regression analysis.
  2. **For age we elected to use 10 years increments. As noted in the table the odds of using CAM interventions compared to not using CAM methods were reduced by a factor of 0.73 for every 10 year increment of increasing age. This finding suggests that after adjusting for all the factors in the model, young adults are more likely to use CAM therapy than older adults.