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Table 5 Experiment A: Blood edema and administration by sub plantar injection

From: Rat models of acute inflammation: a randomized controlled study on the effects of homeopathic remedies

Drug Paw volume increase over time (ml ± SD) and effect (% of negative control)
  1 hr   2 hr   3 hr   5 hr  
Saline 0.80 ± 0.08   0.73 ± 0.09   0.69 ± 0.08   0.52 ± 0.07  
Arnica D4 0.65 ± 0.09 -19 0.68 ± 0.11 -7 0.60 ± 0.08 -12 0.47 ± 0.07 -9
Apis D4 0.69 ± 0.09 -14 0.69 ± 0.08 -6 0.63 ± 0.08 -8 0.45 ± 0.07 -14
Atropa D4 0.73 ± 0.09 -9 0.70 ± 0.09 -4 0.63 ± 0.09 -8 0.48 ± 0.08 -9
Hamamelis D4 0.67 ± 0.13 -16 0.70 ± 0.13 -5 0.64 ± 0.09 -7 0.45 ± 0.09 -14
Lachesis D6 0.77 ± 0.09 -4 0.75 ± 0.11 3 0.63 ± 0.09 -8 0.48 ± 0.09 -8
Phosphorus D6 0.63 ± 0.13 -21 0.69 ± 0.16 -5 0.60 ± 0.15 -12 0.45 ± 0.15 -13
Indomethacin i.m. 0.69 ± 0.08 -14 0.62 ± 0.09 -16 0.49 ± 0.09 -28 0.38 ± 0.11 -27
  1. ANOVA results. Treatment: F(7,134) = 3.92, p = 0.0006; Time: F(3,402) = 579.79, p < 0.0001; Treatment × time: F(21,402) = 4.54, p < 0.0001.
  2. Bold characters denote significant comparisons (by Student t test) vs. Saline group corresponding for time since edema induction.