Effects of CSE on cell proliferation. BrdU immunofluorescence in the dentate gyrus of the vehicle-treated (A), 40 mg/kg CSE-treated (B), and 100 mg/kg CSE-treated (C) groups. BrdU-positive cells are significantly higher in the 100 mg/kg CSE-treated group than in the vehicle-treated and 40 mg/kg CSE-treated groups. GCL: granule cell layer; ML: molecular layer; PoL: polymorphic layer. Scale bar = 50 μm. D: The number of BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the vehicle-treated, 40 mg/kg CSE-treated, and 100 mg/kg CSE-treated groups (n = 7 per group; *P < 0.05, versus vehicle-treated group; #
P < 0.05, versus the 40 mg/kg CSE-treated group). All data are shown as the mean ± SEM.