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Table 1 Comprehensive list of specific terms tested in cognitive interviews

From: Cognitive interviews guide design of a new CAM patient expectations questionnaire

Broad category

Specific terms

Source for specific terms*

1. Terms and Phrases Describing Expectations


Cambron; Cherkin/Sherman; Coeytaux; Evans; Foster; Haas; Hondras; Qualitative interviews of patients

Personally expect

Cohen; Linde; Witt

Realistically expect

Qualitative interviews of patients


Qualitative interviews of patients




Cohen; Lao


Borkovec and Nau (Used by Lewith, Wayne and P. White); Cohen


Hondras; Linde; Lao; Vas

Really think

Devilly and Borkovec used “really feel”


Borkovec and Nau; Cohen; Devilly and Borkovec; Haas; Kaptchuk; Hurwitz; Lamb


Cherkin/Sherman; Hondras; Ritenbaugh

Think is likely to occur

Devilly and Borkovec; Expert reviewer


Borkovec and Nau (Used by Lewith, Wayne and P. White); Cambron; Cohen; Haas; Hurwitz; Kaptchuk; Lamb

2. Domains of Outcome Expectations


Back Pain

Back condition


Back pain

Back pain [Cherkin/Sherman; Foster]

Low back pain [Evans; Hondras; Hurwitz; Williams; Witt]

Back pain problems

Low back problems [Hondras]

Back Dysfunction and Global Effects

Limitations due to back pain

Devilly and Borkovec


Impact of back pain on life

Qualitative interviews of patients

Impact of Back Pain on Specific Areas of Life

Impact on work

Qualitative interviews of patients


Impact on social and recreational activities

Qualitative interviews of patients


Impact on daily activities

Qualitative interviews of patients


Impact on relationships with family and friends

Qualitative interviews of patients

Mood, Energy


Moyer; Qualitative interviews of patients



Cohen; Mao; Qualitative interviews of patients




3. Timeframe

End of treatment period

Devilly and Borkovec


Short-term outcome

Hondras (1 month from now)


Long-term outcome

Evans (3 months after)


One year from now


1. Response Options



Agreement with item

Cohen; Mao; Moyer; Vas; White;


Word descriptors for each gradation

Cohen; Cherkin/Sherman; Evans; Foster; Linde ART, Ritenbaugh; Witt; Mao; Lao


0 to 10

Cambron; Coeytaux; Evans; Foster; Hondras


1 to 9

Devilly and Borkovec



Devilly and Borkovec; Evans;


-5 to-5

Expert reviewer


1 to 5


2. Anchors


Relative descriptors

Lower anchors: A little worse [study team]; Much worse [Cherkin/Sherman; Hondras]; Very unhelpful [Ritenbaugh]; Worst pain imaginable [Cambron]

Upper anchors: Better than it’s ever been [study team]; Extremely helpful [Evans; Ritenbaugh]; Extremely hopeful [Foster]; Very effective [Coeytaux]


Absolute descriptors

Lower anchors: No pain [Cambron]; Not at all effective [Coeytaux]; No change/worse [study team]; Not at all helpful [Williams; Hondras]; Not at all hopeful [Foster]; No Improvement [Witt]


Upper anchors: Complete Relief [expert reviewers]; Completely Better [Foster]; Completely Gone [Cherkin/Sherman; Hondras]; Cure [Linde; Witt]; No pain, pain-free [Cognitive Interviews]

  1. *For citations and additional information see Additional file 1: Appendix A & Additional file 1: Appendix B.