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Table 4 Immunological measures of both groups at three assessment times

From: A relaxation technique enhances psychological well-being and immune parameters in elderly people from a nursing home: A randomized controlled study

Variable Group A M ± SD Mann–WhitneyU B M ± SD Mann–WhitneyU C M ± SD Mann–WhitneyU Wilcoxon’sT A vs. B Wilcoxon’sT A vs. C
    z p   z p   z p z p z p
CD19 TG 6.60 ± 2.53 -0.23 0.81 4.86 ± 1.33 -1.97 0.04 4.72 ± 3.60 -0.80 0.41 -2.43 0.01 -1.95 0.05
  CG 6.85 ± 1.74    6.75 ± 3.08    5.25 ± 2.49    -0.17 0.86 -1.76 0.07
CD4 TG 41.43 ± 11.40 -0.48 0.62 43.83 ± 6.67 -0.66 0.50 51.90 ± 24.62 -0.06 0.95 -0.66 0.50 -1.51 0.13
  CG 40.36 ± 10.74    45.51 ± 9.15    47.83 ± 10.22    -1.08 0.27 -1.25 0.20
CD8 TG 18.59 ± 6.11 -0.64 0.51 21.13 ± 4.42 -1.28 0.20 22.27 ± 14.24 -0.61 0.53 -1.01 0.31 -0.66 0.50
  CG 18.54 ± 3.51    19.01 ± 6.65    23.08 ± 12.81    0.00 1.00 -0.78 0.43
CD56 TG 20.52 ± 7.72 -0.46 0.64 22.93 ± 5.21 -0.05 0.95 20.18 ± 13.38 -1.05 0.29 -0.87 0.38 -0.53 0.59
  CG 18.58 ± 6.10    24.16 ± 10.93    23.00 ± 7.43    -1.74 0.08 -1.64 0.09
CD71 TG 0.53 ± 0.24 -0.09 0.92 3.52 ± 1.74 -1.98 0.04 2.00 ± 1.54 -1.45 0.14 -3.18 0.00 -2.94 0.00
  CG 0.54 ± 0.30    2.23 ± 1.12    2.25 ± 0.75    -3.11 0.00 -3.06 0.00
CD97 TG 0.77 ± 0.78 -0.58 0.55 2.90 ± 1.79 -2.46 0.01 2.63 ± 1.56 -0.51 0.60 -3.11 0.00 -2.58 0.01
  CG 0.69 ± 0.57    5.34 ± 2.96    2.33 ± 1.30    -3.18 0.00 -2.59 0.01
CD134 TG 1.03 ± 0.49 -0.97 0.32 0.28 ± 0.22 -2.26 0.02 1.49 ± 0.93 -0.33 0.73 -2.97 0.00 -0.48 0.62
  CG 1.26 ± 0.44    0.63 ± 0.44    2.06 ± 2.48    -2.83 0.00 -0.40 0.68
CD137 TG 0.14 ± 0.07 -1.09 0.27 0.09 ± 0.07 -2.25 0.02 0.63 ± 0.70 -0.25 0.80 -1.73 0.08 -2.14 0.03
  CG 0.18 ± 0.10    0.17 ± 0.09    1.19 ± 0.00    0.00 1.00 -1.53 0.12
  1. Note: Between-subject (Mann–Whitney U test) and within-subject (Wilcoxon’s T test) effects for immunological values at three assessment times. Means are expressed as percentages of total number of lymphoid cells. TG: Treatment Group; CG: Waitlist Control Group; M: Mean (SD: Standard Deviation); A: pre-treatment assessment; B: post-treatment assessment; C: three-month follow-up assessment.
  2. Bold text: p < 0.05.