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Table 3 Clinical measures of both groups at three assessment times

From: A relaxation technique enhances psychological well-being and immune parameters in elderly people from a nursing home: A randomized controlled study

Variable Group A M ± SD Mann-WhitneyU B M ± SD Mann-WhitneyU C M ± SD Mann-WhitneyU Wilcoxon’sT A versus B Wilcoxon’sT A versus C
    z p   z p   z p z p z p
SBP (mmHg) TG 143.08 ± 21.65 0.00 1.00 138.08 ± 19.53 -0.74 0.45 135.00 ± 19.16 -0.66 0.51 -0.90 0.36 -1.63 0.10
  CG 141.67 ± 19.88    144.44 ± 20.53    141.67 ± 17.22    -0.77 0.43 -0.63 0.52
DBP (mmHg) TG 75.77 ± 12.72 -0.37 0.70 74.62 ± 9.00 -0.27 0.78 67.50 ± 9.57 -1.26 0.20 -0.27 0.78 -1.13 0.25
  CG 72.33 ± 10.33    75.56 ± 9.82    75.00 ± 8.37    -0.43 0.66 -0.13 0.89
HR (bpm) TG 79.08 ± 12.12 -0.95 0.34 80.09 ± 14.02 -1.07 0.28 - - - -0.10 0.91 - -
  CG 73.27 ± 8.45    73.00 ± 7.35    -    -0.35 0.72 - -
Leukocytes/mm3 TG 6646.15 ± 1145.73 -0.29 0.77 6584.62 ± 1003.20 -1.23 0.21 6180.00 ± 1139.98 -0.78 0.43 -0.52 0.60 -1.63 0.10
  CG 6450.00 ± 1399.31    6192.31 ± 1515.18    6861.54 ± 1526.18    -0.35 0.72 -0.39 0.69
Segmented (%) TG 56.74 ± 7.70 -0.34 0.01 56.38 ± 7.41 -2.30 0.02 59.44 ± 7.77 -1.67 0.09 -0.17 0.86 -1.07 0.28
  CG 47.55 ± 11.31    48.93 ± 8.56    51.89 ± 10.34    -1.05 0.28 -1.29 0.19
Limphocytes (%) TG 30.55 ± 7.90 -1.82 0.06 30.66 ± 6.77 -2.38 0.01 28.92 ± 6.80 -1.36 0.17 -0.14 0.88 -0.81 0.41
  CG 38.02 ± 12.50    36.99 ± 7.16    35.48 ± 10.73    -0.15 0.87 -0.31 0.75
Monocytes (%) TG 8.63 ± 1.63 -0.87 0.38 8.72 ± 1.92 -0.61 0.53 9.12 ± 2.02 -0.50 0.62 0.00 1.00 -1.71 0.08
  CG 9.67 ± 2.63    9.07 ± 1.99    8.72 ± 2.34    -0.27 0.78 -1.29 0.19
Eosinophils (%) TG 3.56 ± 1.82 -0.72 0.46 3.64 ± 2.00 -0.64 0.52 3.64 ± 2.24 -0.59 0.55 0.00 1.00 -0.25 0.79
  CG 4.15 ± 2.60    4.28 ± 2.61    3.96 ± 1.99    -0.23 0.81 -1.11 0.26
Basophils (%) TG 0.50 ± 0.21 -0.71 0.47 0.73 ± 0.58 -0.31 0.75 0.48 ± 0.12 -2.01 0.04 -1.07 0.28 -0.81 0.41
  CG 0.58 ± 0.33    0.70 ± 0.43    0.69 ± 0.33    -0.27 0.78 -1.54 0.12
Red blood (cells/mm3) TG 4.42 ± 0.33 -1.05 0.29 4.49 ± 0.37 -1.13 0.25 4.53 ± 0.38 -1.34 0.17 -0.80 0.42 -1.68 0.09
  CG 4.30 ± 0.39    4.36 ± 0.49    4.31 ± 0.35    -1.29 0.19 -0.39 0.69
Hemoglobin (g/dl) TG 13.47 ± 1.18 -1.43 0.15 13.61 ± 1.31 -1.07 0.28 13.90 ± 1.20 -1.40 0.16 -0.87 0.38 -2.19 0.02
  CG 12.86 ± 1.28    13.04 ± 1.67    13.08 ± 1.17    -0.93 0.35 -1.33 0.18
Hematocrit (%) TG 41.66 ± 3.57 -1.67 0.09 41.75 ± 3.83 -1.18 0.23 41.52 ± 3.81 -0.59 0.55 -0.24 0.80 -0.15 0.87
  CG 39.35 ± 3.71    39.82 ± 4.31    40.57 ± 3.42    -0.90 0.36 -1.41 0.15
MCV (fl) TG 94.23 ± 4.53 -1.62 0.10 93.40 ± 4.61 -1.10 0.27 92.14 ± 4.41 -1.18 0.23 -2.62 0.00 -2.49 0.01
  CG 91.45 ± 5.27    91.80 ± 5.14    94.29 ± 6.01    -0.49 0.62 -1.86 0.06
Platelets/mm3 TG 232.38 ± 49.53 -1.57 0.11 234.77 ± 55.25 -1.71 0.08 196.70 ± 37.78 -0.12 0.90 -0.38 0.70 -2.14 0.03
  CG 197.57 ± 41.64    197.00 ± 38.20    203.66 ± 62.30    -0.66 0.50 -0.15 0.87
ESR (mm/h) TG 40.25 ± 21.93 -0.69 0.48 44.55 ± 31.70 0.22 0.82 29.14 ± 18.84 -0.76 0.44 -0.77 0.44 -0.94 0.34
  CG 35.36 ± 27.54    45.29 ± 23.96    41.50 ± 29.78    -0.63 0.52 -0.44 0.65
Glycemia (mg/dl) TG 108.08 ± 23.46 -2.21 0.22 108.82 ± 31.59 -0.60 0.54 102.0 ± 29.21 -1.05 0.29 -0.89 0.37 -0.25 0.79
  CG 91.53 ± 15.08    103.69 ± 47.89    86.54 ± 19.33    -0.15 0.87 -1.54 0.12
Creatinine (mg/dl) TG 0.92 ± 0.18 -0.87 0.38 0.92 ± 0.22 -1.45 0.14 0.97 ± 0.19 -1.68 0.09 -0.71 0.47 -2.00 0.04
  CG 1.01 ± 0.30    0.99 ± 0.18    1.13 ± 0.36    -1.45 0.14 -2.74 0.00
Urea (mg/dl) TG 34.23 ± 9.75 -1.91 0.05 38.27 ± 6.39 -1.62 0.10 41.09 ± 8.70 -0.87 0.38 -2.32 0.02 -2.18 0.02
  CG 6.87 ± 20.27    46.31 ± 12.43    51.46 ± 20.53    -0.17 0.86 -1.18 0.23
Uric Acid (mg/dl) TG 4.58 ± 1.23 -1.45 0.14 4.50 ± 1.55 -1.59 0.11 4.75 ± 1.41 -1.30 0.19 -1.11 0.26 -0.89 0.37
  CG 5.58 ± 1.81    5.52 ± 1.40    5.57 ± 1.50    -0.24 0.80 -0.17 0.86
Cholesterol (mg/dl) TG 196.46 ± 29.01 -0.53 0.59 190.00 ± 35.79 -1.04 0.29 215.64 ± 40.38 -0.98 0.32 -0.22 0.82 -1.86 0.06
  CG 202.93 ± 46.63    210.54 ± 47.76    202.15 ± 30.02    -1.51 0.13 -0.35 0.72
HDL Cholesterol TG 51.50 ± 12.66 -0.29 0.77 52.03 ± 13.29 -0.23 0.81 55.19 ± 13.74 -0.46 0.64 -0.10 0.91 -1.47 0.13
(mg/dl) CG 53.00 ± 11.67    50.95 ± 9.66    56.35 ± 13.10    -1.12 0.26 -2.66 0.00
Triglycerides (mg/dl) TG 135.46 ± 70.04 -0.73 0.46 128.18 ± 68.05 -0.40 0.68 137.36 ± 92.12 -0.20 0.83 -1.24 0.21 -0.35 0.72
  CG 126.20 ± 75.86    146.62 ± 95.11    104.00 ± 27.91    -0.98 0.32 -0.07 0.93
LDL Cholesterol TG 117.86 ± 29.38 -0.68 0.49 112.32 ± 31.70 -1.04 0.29 131.47 ± 33.46 -0.97 0.33 0.00 1.00 -1.48 0.13
(mg/dl) CG 130.77 ± 28.01    128.33 ± 36.95    125.32 ± 25.37    -0.84 0.40 -0.65 0.51
AST (U/L) TG 22.37 ± 5.08 -0.76 0.44 19.88 ± 5.97 -0.66 0.50 26.90 ± 15.21 -1.36 0.17 -2.40 0.01 -0.44 0.65
  CG 21.49 ± 6.91    21.59 ± 5.90    19.99 ± 7.71    -0.10 0.91 -0.45 0.65
ALT (U/L) TG 18.41 ± 4.85 -0.96 0.33 15.72 ± 5.01 -0.49 0.62 14.00 ± 5.50 -0.78 0.43 -2.84 0.04 -1.95 0.05
  CG 18.73 ± 12.10    18.90 ± 11.43    17.73 ± 9.72    -0.59 0.55 -1.01 0.31
GGT (U/L) TG 19.93 ± 6.88 -0.58 0.56 18.88 ± 3.90 -0.63 0.52 19.23 ± 5.05 -1.16 0.24 -1.29 0.19 -0.88 0.37
  CG 32.14 ± 30.03    20.29 ± 14.50    39.80 ± 39.82    -1.02 0.30 -2.59 0.01
Total proteins (gr/dl) TG 6.90 ± 0.48 -1.24 0.21 6.90 ± 0.42 -0.06 0.94 7.31 ± 0.42 -0.03 0.97 -1.13 0.25 -2.19 0.02
  CG 6.71 ± 0.48    6.88 ± 0.38    7.26 ± 0.34    -1.49 0.13 -2.90 0.00
Albumin (gr/dl) TG 3.93 ± 0.32 -0.09 0.92 3.87 ± 0.18 -0.49 0.62 4.02 ± 0.18 -0.76 0.44 -0.17 0.85 -0.05 0.95
  CG 3.95 ± 0.30    3.82 ± 0.34    4.10 ± 0.26    -0.80 0.42 -1.33 0.18
  1. Note: Between-group (Mann–Whitney U test) and within-subject (Wilcoxon’s T test) effects for clinical values at three assessment times. TG: Treatment Group; CG: Waitlist Control Group; M: Mean ± SD: Standard Deviation); SBP: Systolic Blood Pressure; DBP: Dyastolic Blood Pressure; HR: Heart Rate; MCV: Mean Corpuscular Volume; ESR: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate; AST: Aspartate aminotransferase; ALT: Alanine aminotransferase; GGT: Gamma glutamyl transferase; A: pre-treatment assessment; B: post-treatment assessment; C: three-month follow-up assessmen. Bold text: p < 0.05.