EcEE affect cell viability and proliferation. (A) Cell viability after 24 h, 48 h and 96 h of exposure to distinct concentrations of EcEE and (B) after 72 h recovery in EcEE-free medium following 24 h and 48 h treatments. Results are presented as percentage over control, **p < 0.0001 and *p < 0.01. (C) NCL, FOS and p21 differential transcription after 48 h exposure to distinct EcEE concentrations. Results are shown as mean log2 fold change (2-ΔΔCt) ± standard deviation in relation control, *p < 0.0001. (D) DAPI stained HT29 colonies after 48 h in control medium and medium supplemented with EcEE 5 μg/ml or EcEE 25 μg/ml. All images have identical magnification, bar = 50 μm.