Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Change scores within yoga and control, and difference between groups with 95% CI and Cohen's d effect size

From: A yoga intervention for type 2 diabetes risk reduction: a pilot randomized controlled trial

  Yoga Control Diff. (Yoga-Ctrl) P diff. Cohen’s d
(n = 20) (n = 18) [95% CI]
Diabetes risk factors
Fasting BG (mmol/L) 0 −0.3 0.3 [−0.5 to 1.1] 0.43 0.27
Postprandial BG (mmol/L)a −0.6 0.1 −0.7 [−2.4 to 0.9] 0.38 0.37
BMI (kg/m2) −0.2 0.6 −0.8 [−1.6 to −0.0] 0.05 0.68
Weight (kg) −0.8 1.4 −2.3 [−4.1 to −0.4] 0.02 0.80
Waist (cm) −4.2* 0.7 −4.9 [−7.9 to −1.9] <0.01 1.11
Systolic (mmHg) −5.3* −5.4* 0.1 [−4.8 to 5.1] 0.95 0.02
Diastolic (mmHg) −5.3* −3.6* −1.7 [−7.6 to 4.1] 0.55 0.20
Insulin (pmol/L) −16.7 4.2 −20.9 [−52.2 to 10.4] 0.19 0.46
Insulin resistance −0.3 0.1 −0.4 [−1.0 to 0.2] 0.17 0.48
LDL (mmol/L) −0.1 0.0 −0.2 [−0.6 to 0.3] 0.47 0.24
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) −0.9* −0.7* −0.2 [−0.9 to 0.6] 0.67 0.15
Triglycerides (mmol/L) −0.1 −0.1 0 [−0.6 to 0.6] 0.95 0.02
Psychological factors b
Anxiety −2.1* −3.4* 1.3 [−0.8 to 3.4] 0.22 0.42
Depression −2.5* −3.2* 0.7 [−1.7 to 3.2] 0.55 0.21
Positive affect 4.8* 4.6 0.2 [−4.9 to 5.2] 0.95 0.02
Negative affect −5.0* −8.4* 3.4 [−2.3 to 9.0] 0.24 0.41
Perceived stress −5.7* −7.9* 2.2 [−1.3 to 5.8] 0.21 0.43
  1. aPostprandial BG was calculated based on available data, yoga n = 18 control n = 10.
  2. bThree participants were missing data for psychological factors in the control group.
  3. *p < 0.05.
  4. BG blood glucose; BMI body mass index; LDL low density lipoproteins.