Inhibition of AD progression by topical application of GCSE. (A) Representative ear pictures of control group or GCSE treated groups were shown. (B) AD progression was assessed by measuring ear thickness, 24 hrs after each DNCB or mite extract treatment. (C) Ears excised from each group were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 24 hrs and embedded in paraffin. Paraffin embedded ears were sectioned into 6 μm and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Infiltration by lymphocytes and thickness of epidermis were observed under the microscope (50X, 100X and 200X). (D ) Total serum IgE levels were measured by ELISA, left. CD19+ B cells isolated from draining lymph node of each group were stimulated with LPS (10 μg/ml)/IL-4 (5 ng/ml) for 72 hrs then IgE levels in the culture supernatant were measured by ELISA, right. Error bars indicate SD. One (*), two (**) and three (***) indicate p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively. Data are representative of three independent experiments.