Inhibitory effect of the compounds isolated from A. victorialis on high glucose-induced TGF-β1 mRNA expression. Quiescent MMCs were treated with high glucose for 48 h followed by 10 μM of the compounds (1–8). Kaempferol 3,7,4′-O-β-d-triglucopyranoside (1), kaempferol 3,7-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside (2), kaempferol 3,4'-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside (3), quercitrin (4), kaempferol (5), quercetin (6), 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (7), and ferulic acid (8). TGF-β1 mRNA expression was determined by relative RT-PCR. Results are the mean ± S.E.M. (n=3). ***p<0.001 vs. untreated cells; ###p<0.001, ##p<0.01, #p<0.05 vs. HG.