Skip to main content

Table 1 Pharmacognosy of twenty-two studied Cameroonian medicinal plants

From: Cytotoxicity of Elaoephorbia drupifera and other Cameroonian medicinal plants against drug sensitive and multidrug resistant cancer cells

Plant species, family/(Voucher specimen)a Traditional use Part used traditionally Part used in this study (extraction yield in %)b Potential active constituents Previously screened activity
Ageratum conyzoïdes Linn. (Asteraceae)/(19050/SFR-Cam) Purgative, fever, ulcers and wound, mental and infectious diseases, headaches, craw-craw, diarrhea [13]. Leaves, whole plant [13] Leaves (8.52%) β-caryophyllene, precocene I, friedelin, Lycopsamine, echinatine,β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, 5-methoxynobiletin, linderoflavone B, eupalestin, sabinene, α and βpinene, 1.6%, β-phellandrene, 1,8-cineole and limonene, ocimene, eugenol [13] Antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, insecticidal [13]
Albizia gummifera (Mimosaceae)/(41196/HNC) Bacterial infections, skin diseases, malaria and stomach pain [14] Bark Bark (11.51%) Vitalboside A, vitalboside-A-2-methylglucuronate, lupeol, lupenone [14] Antiplasmodial [15]
Aloe barbadensis Mill. (Liliaceae), ICNA Abrasions and burns, emollient and moisturizer [16] Leaves [16] Leaves (8.15%) Aloin A, B, aloesin, aloresin A, aloe-emodin, rhein, aloe-emodin-9-anthrone [16] Antidiabetic, antiviral, angiogenic, toxicity, immunomodulator [16]
Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Vitaceae)/(18668/SRF-Cam) Fracture healing, eye diseases, chronic ulcer, tumors, asthma [17] Stem, pulps [17] Stem (6.83%) Alpha and β-amyrin, β-sitosterol, ketosteroid, phenols, tannins, carotene [17] Antiosteoporotic, analgesic, hypotensive, antibacterial, antifungal [18]
Crinum zeylanicum Linn. (Amaryllidaceae)/(18263/SRF-Cam) Rheumatism, earache, malaria, poison [19] Bulbs [19] Whole plant (6.85%) Flexinine, 6‒hydroxypowelline, zeylamine, hamayne, 3‒acetylhamayne, crinamine, 6‒hydroxycrinamine, 6‒methoxycrinamine, crinine, ambelline, 6‒hydroxybuphandrine, 6‒ethoxybuphandrine, 6‒ethoxybuphanidrine, lycorine, 11‒O‒acetoxyambelline, galanthamine, sanguinine, 3‒O‒acetylsanguinine [19] Antiproliferative compounds [19]
Croton macrostachys Hochst. (Euphorbiaceae)/(40501/HNC) Antidiabetic [20] Roots, bark [20] Bark (12.72%) Taraxer-14-en-28-oic acid, trachyloban-19-oic acid, trachyloban-18-oic acid, neoclerodan-5,10-en-19,6β;20,12-diolide, 3α,19-dihydroxytrachylobane, 3α,18,19-trihydoxytrachylobane [20] Not reported
Dioscorea bulbifera L (Dioscoreaceae)/(14274/HNC) Sore throat and struma, leprosy and tumors, diabetes, microbial infections [21, 22] Rhizome [21] Rhizome (15.8%) Kaempferol-3,5-dimethyl ether, caryatin, (+)-catechin, myricetin, quercetin-3-O-galactopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-galactopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-glucopyranoside, diosbulbin B [21] Analgesic, anti-inflammatory [23], antimicrobial [22]
Dioscorea dumetorum (Kunth) Pax Trusted (Dioscoreaceae)/(24431/ SRF-Cam) Diabetes, topical anesthetic, poison [24] Leaves Leaves (6.95%) Dumetorine, dihydrodioscorine, demethylbatatasin IV, dihydroresveratrol [24, 25] Not reported
Dissotis perkinsiae Gilg. (Melastomataceae)/(6991/ SRF-Cam) Typhoid fever (Personal information) Leaves, stem Stem with leaves (10.35%) Not reported Not reported
Elaoephorbia drupifera (Thonn.) Stapf. (Euphorbiaceae)/(57644/HNC) Hypertension, diabetes [26] Leaves [26] Leaves Euphol, tirucallol, euphorbol, ingenol elaeophorbate, epitaraxerol, taraxerone, friedelin, lup-20(29)-en-3-one or lupenone, lupeol, olean-12-ene-3-one, olean-12-ene-3-ol,elaeophorbate [27, 28] Leaves extract moderately inhibit HIV-1 and HIV-2 proviral DNA copying [29], relaxant effect on vascular smooth muscles on rats [30]
Entada abyssinica Steud. ex A. Rich. (Mimosaceae)/(26967/SRF-Cam) Bronchitis, coughs, arthritic pain, miscarriage, fever, abdominal pain [31] Bark, Juice [31] Bark (13.95%) Not reported Not reported
Eremomastax speciosa (Hochst) Cufod (Acanthaceae)/(16371/SRF-Cam) Dysentery, anemia, irregular menstruation, hemorrhoids, urinary tract infection [32] Stem, leaves [32] Stem with leaves (8.15%) Not reported Anti-diarrhoeal, anti-ulcerogenic [32]
Gossypium barbadense L. (Malvaceae)/(25771/HNC) Cold, bronchitis, palpitations, wounds, systematic diarrhea [33] leaves, young shoots [33] Leaves (8.15%) Gossypol, hemigossypol,6-methoxyhemigossypol, 6-deoxyhemigossypol, 6-methoxygossypol, 6,6′-dimethoxygossypol [34, 35] Antimicrobial [33]
Kigelia Africana (Lam.) Benth (Bignoniaceae)/(23220/SRF-Cam) Dysentery, ringworm, tape-worm, malaria, diabetes, post-partum haemorrhage, pneumonia, toothache, syphilis, gonorrhea [36] Roots, fruits, leaves, bark [36] Bark (15.85%) Pinnatal, norvibutinal, β-sitosterol, 7-hydroxy viteoid II, 7-hydroxy eucommic acid, jiofuran, jioglutolide, kigelin, specioside, verminoside, stigmasterol, lapachol [36] Antibacterial and antifungal, cytotoxic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, central nervous system stimulant, antidiabetic [36]
(Bignoniaceae)/Markhamia tomentosa K.Schum. (1974/SRF-Cam) Anti-snake venom, sore eyes, heart pain, scrotal elephantiasis [37] Leaves Bark (5.31%) 2-acetylnaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, 2-acetyl-6-methoxynaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, oleanolic acid, pomolic acid, 3-acetylpomolic acid, tormentic acid, β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside [38] Antimicrobial, antiprotozoal [37, 38]
Stem and leaves Malaria [39] Leaves, roots, stems [39] Stem with leaves (8.13%) Paullinoside A, paullinomides A and B, β-amyrin, 13β, 17β-dihydroxy-28-norolean-12-ene, β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol glucopyranoside [40] Antiparasitic [39]
Poliostigma thonningii (Schum.) Milne-Readhead (Caesalpiniaceae)/(32129/HNC) Leprosy, smallpox, coughs, wounds, ulcers [41] bark, root, leaves [41] Bark (13.95%) Piliostigmin, quercetin, quercitrin, 6-C-methylquercetin 3-methyl ether, 6-C-methylquercetin 3,7,3′-trimethyl ether, 6,8-di-C-methylkaempferol 3-methyl ether, 6,8-di-C-methylkaempferol 3,7-dimethyl ether [42] Antihelmintic, antitussive, bronchodilator, antibacterial [41]
Pseudarthria confertiflora (A. Rich.) Bak. Fabaceae)/(17465/SRF-Cam) Typhoid fever (Personal information) Leaves Leaves (10.75%) Not reported Not reported
Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae)/(29470/SRF-Cam) Kidney diseases, urethra inflammation, poison, enemas, fungus skin diseases, herpes, stomachache, diarrhea [43] Flowers, leaves, bark [43] Bark (15.81%) Ajugol, p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, methyl p-hydroxy-benzoate [43] Molluscicidal, hypoglycemic, anti-HIV, anti-malarial [43]
Spilanthes filicaulis (Schum et Thonn.) C.D. (Asteraceae)/(42040/HNC) Toothache, stomach ache, gastritis [44] Whole plant Whole plant (5.62%) Not reported Analgesic, antimicrobial [45], antiulcerogenic [46]
Stereospermum acuminatissimum K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae)/(45705/HNC) Haemostatic, cicatrizing [47] Leaves, barks [48] Bark (13.15%) 1,3,7-trimethylguanin-1/3-ium, 3,7-dimethylguanin-1/3-ium, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl hentriacontanoate, sterequinones A, B, C, E, F, H, zenkequinones A, B, p-coumaric acid, methyl caffeate, caffeic acid, psilalic acid, syringaldehyde, norviburtinal, specioside, verminoside, tyrosol, eutigoside A, ellagic acid, atranorin, ursolic acid, pomolic acid, quinovic acid, oleanolic acid, triacontan-1,30-dioldiferulate, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl dotriacontanoate [47, 48] Antiprotozoal [49]
Terminalia glaucescens Planch. (Combretaceae)/(9468/SRFCAM) Dysentery, AIDS [50] Bark Bark (13.84%) glaucinoic acid, arjunic acid, arjungenin, sericoside, friedelin [50] Antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, aldose reductase inhibition [50, 51]
  1. aPlants were identified at the Cameroon National Herbarium (HNC); ICNA: Voucher with no identification code at the HNC; bThe percentage of the methanol extract.