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Table 3 Levels of IL-1β and TNF-α (mean ± standard deviation, pg/mL) in macrophage culture supernatants after exposure to plant extracts (100 mg/mL for G. glabra L. and 50 mg/ml for E. arvense L., P. granatum L. and S. barbatimam Mart.)

From: Cytotoxicity of Brazilian plant extracts against oral microorganisms of interest to dentistry

Plant extract     Cytokine production (pg/mL)
IL-1β TNF-α
E. arvense L. 1.32 ± 1.37A 0.83 ± 2.86B
G. glabra L. 1.99 ± 1.46A 4.92 ±1.46B
P. granatum L. 7.72 ±1.13C 0.00B
S. barbatimam Mart. 3.98 ± 1.40B 0.85 ± 2.93B
Control 2.20 ± 2.11A 41.96 ± 10.53A
  1. Different superscript letters indicate statistically significant differences (P < 0.05).