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Table 2 Changes from baseline to 9 months in primary outcomes, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers.

From: Impact of Tai Chi exercise on multiple fracture-related risk factors in post-menopausal osteopenic women: a pilot pragmatic, randomized trial

Variable Randomized to
Usual Care (n = 43)
Randomized to
Tai Chi (n = 43)
Per Protocol
Tai Chi (n = 26)
  Baseline 9 Months Baseline 9 Months Baseline 9 Months
BMD       
Femoral Neck (mean ± SD) (g/cm2)
% change (median [Q1, Q3])
.692 ± .068 .685 ± .069
-0.85 [-2.58, 0.70]
.680 ± .063 .681 ± .063
-0.39 [-1.48, 1.02]
*p = 0.24
.685 ± .074 .688 ± .075
-0.23 [-0.64, 1.02]
*p = 0.05
Total Hip (mean ± SD) (g/cm2)
% change (median [Q1, Q3])
.837 ± .077 .835 ± .078
-0.64 [-1.39, 0.92]
.829 ± .073 .832 ± .074
0.23 [-1.12, 0.89]
*p = 0.26
.832 ± .079 .834 ± .079
0.35 [-1.20, 1.13]
*p = 0.32
Spine (mean ± SD) (g/cm2)
% change (median [Q1, Q3])
.901 ± .128 .891 ± .132
-1.27 [-2.67, 0.28]
.898 ± .070 .889 ± .069
-1.38 [-2.72, 0.99]
*p = 0.98
.898 ± .076 .894 ±.072
-1.21 [-1.95, 1.88]
*p = 0.38
Bone Turnover Markers       
CTX (mean ± SD) (ng/ml)
% change (median [Q1, Q3])
.603 ± .231 .629 ± .310
2.05 [-15.33, 23.19]
.554 ± .259 .569 ± .248
0.68 [-17.94, 24.19]
*p = 0.99
.594 ± .30 .552 ± .266
-7.17 [-25.77, 12.56]
*p = 0.21
OSC (mean ± SD) (ng/ml)
% change (median [Q1, Q3])
15.52 ± 4.94 16.50 ± 4.82
4.30 [0.00, 11.80]
16.29 ± 6.01 16.38 ± 5.72
1.94 [-10.03, 12.87]
*p = 0.35
17.11 ± 7.02 16.23 ± 5.96
-3.55 [-13.61, 7.23]
*p = 0.03
  1. * p-value for comparison with Usual Care based on the Wilcoxon rank sum test.
  2. Baseline and 9 month values represent mean values ± standard deviations. Change scores are summarized with median values and 25th (Q1) and 75th (Q3) percentiles. P-values indicate comparisons between Usual Care ground and Tai Chi and Per Protocol groups, based on the Wilcoxon rank sum test.