Inhibitory effect of EEGS on angiogenic properties in HUVEC cells. (A) HUVEC cells at 90% confluence were scratched with pipette tips and cultured with various concentrations (0–200 μg/mL) of EEGS for 12 h. The healing areas covered by migrated cells (left) was calculated using image analysis software (right). The data are presented as percentages of the healed area compared to the initial scratched area (t = 0). (B) HUVEC cells were plated in a 96-well plate that was precoated with BME, and the cells were subsequently treated with various concentrations (0–200 μg/mL) of EEGS. After 12 h, the tubes were photographed under the microscope at 100 x magnification (left). Tube length and branch numbers were measured using image analysis software (right). Sulforaphane (Sulfo, 5 μM) was used as a positive control for inhibition of tube formation. The data are presented as relative means compared with control treatment. Data are presented as the mean±S.D. of at least three independent experiments. **p<0.01, and ***p<0.001 compared with control treatment.