Effects of EAL on expression of adhesion molecules in the thoracic aorta. Representative western blots (upper panel) of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin expression in aortic tissues, and quantification (bottom panel) are shown. Each photograph is representative of the results from 5 independent experiments. The scale bar represents 15 μm (Magnification, ×400). Values are expressed as a percentage of the density of blot (mean ± S.E.); **p<0.01 vs. Control; ##p<0.01 vs. HFCD alone.