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Table 4 Histopathological analysis of the tongue in mice that received topical oral treatment with a gel based on geopropolis (GP) from Melipona fasciculata Smith.

From: Antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens and immunomodulatory effects and toxicity of geopropolis produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith

Parameters Analyzeda Treatment groupsb
  GP S GS
Vascular Congestion 0.4 ± 0.1*# 1.8 ± 0.2 b 1.6 ± 0.1
Edema 0 *# 1.2 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.1*
Inflammatory Infiltrate 0.2 ± 0.1* 1.2 ± 0.1 0 *
Hemorrhage 0.4 ± 0.1* 2.2 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.1*
  1. (a) Tissue changes were scored as: 0 for absent, 1 for scarce, 2 for moderate and 3 for intense. Data represent the mean ± SEM of 6 animals per group
  2. (b) GP - gel with geopropolis; GS - gel base and S - Saline
  3. (*) p < 0.05 in relation to GP
  4. (#) p < 0.05 in relation to S