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Table 1 Baseline demographic characteristics of study population

From: Green tea polyphenols supplementation and Tai Chi exercise for postmenopausal osteopenic women: safety and quality of life report

Variables Placebo GTP Placebo+TC GTP+TC P value
Number 44 47 42 38  
Age [y], mean ± SD 57.6 ± 7.5 56.5 ± 5.5 58.3 ± 7.7 57.6 ± 6.7 NS
Years after menopause 12.5 ± 8.4 11.2 ± 8.3 14.2 ± 11.1 11.4 ± 9.1 NS
Height [cm] 162.8 ± 7.8 162.7 ± 5.4 161.9 ± 6.2 164.1 ± 7.1 NS
Weight [kg] 77.4 ± 15.4 74.5 ± 11.9 74.1 ± 12.1 72.9 ± 14.6 NS
Body mass index [kg/m 2 ] 29.2 ± 6.1 28.1 ± 4.4 28.3 ± 4.9 27.1 ± 5.8 NS
Bone mineral density [T-score]      
   Femoral Neck -1.50 ± 0.62 -1.51 ± 0.64 -1.64 ± 0.56 -1.69 ± 0.59 NS
   Trochanter -1.05 ± 0.81 -1.10 ± 0.70 -1.27 ± 0.62 -1.29 ± 0.71 NS
   Total spine -0.74 ± 0.56 -0.75 ± 0.67 -0.95 ± 0.65 -0.97 ± 0.51 NS
   L1-L4 -0.60 ± 0.85 -0.53 ± 1.09 -0.65 ± 0.76 -0.75 ± 0.83 NS
Serum 25 (OH)D [ng/mL] 32.5 ± 8.4 36.2 ± 11.0 31.5 ± 11.5 30.1 ± 6.6 NS
Serum PTH [pg/mL] 47.8 ± 20.1 45.6 ± 22.5 48.2 ± 22.3 47.2 ± 27.1 NS
Serum TSH [mIU/L] 2.50 ± 1.38 2.09 ± 1.13 2.38 ± 0.94 2.56 ± 1.30 NS
General health questions [n (%)]      
   General health rated "good" 35 (79.5) 38 (80.9) 38 (90.4) 30 (78.9) NS
   Height decrease with age 3 (6.8) 10 (21.2) 7 (16.6) 9 (23.6) NS
   Broken bone as adult 9 (20.4) 13 (27.6) 7 (16.6) 14 (36.8) NS
   History of osteopenia 9 (20.4) 8 (17.0) 9 (21.4) 9 (23.9) NS
   Family history of low bone mass 19 (36.3) 24 (51.0) 13(30.9) 23 (60.5) NS
   History of osteoarthritis 9 (20.4) 5 (10.6) 4 (9.5) 4 (10.5) NS
   Severe joint or muscle pain 16 (36.3) 12 (25.5) 9 (21.4) 9 (23.6) NS
   Back or leg pain 11 (25.0) 12 (25.5) 4 (9.5) 5 (13.1) NS
   History of diabetes 1 (2.3) 5 (10.6) 6 (14.2) 3 (7.8) NS
   History of hypertension 13 (29.5) 9 (19.1) 10 (23.8) 8 (21.0) NS
Physical activity profiles , mean ± SD      
   Exercise frequency [sessions/week] 2.4 ± 2.1 2.0 ± 2.1 1.8 ± 2.0 1.9 ± 2.0 NS
   Exercise time [min/session] 22 ± 19 23 ± 21 29 ± 46 23 ± 22 NS
Mood assessment §, mean ± SD 5.7 ± 5.2 5.9 ± 4.9 5.9 ± 5.6 6.3 ± 4.2 NS
Lifestyle profiles [n (%)]      
   History of steroid use 9 (20.4) 7 (14.8) 8 (19.0) 12 (31.5) NS
   Antidepressant medication use 20 (40.5) 19 (40.4) 17 (40.4) 18 (47.3) NS
   Estrogen/HRT use 9 (20.4) 10 (21.2) 10 (23.8) 7 (18.4) NS
   Calcium/Vitamin D use 22 (50) 23 (48.9) 21 (50) 17 (44.7) NS
   Trouble sleeping 16 (36.4) 17 (36.1) 16 (38.1) 12 (31.5) NS
   Current cigarette smoking 2 (4.5) 2 (4.2) 2 (4.7) 1 (2.6) NS
   Alcohol consumption 23 (52.2) 18 (38.2) 18 (42.8) 21 (55.2) NS
   Tea consumption 26 (59.1) 23 (48.9) 22 (52.3) 27 (71.0) NS
   Coffee consumption 28 (63.6) 34 (72.3) 28 (66.6) 24 (65.5) NS
   Soda consumption 28 (63.6) 29 (65.9) 23 (54.7) 27 (71.1) NS
   Juice consumption 12 (27.2) 22 (46.8) 19 (45.2) 21 (55.2) NS
  1. GTP, green tea polyphenols; TC, Tai Chi; 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D; SD, standard deviation; PTH, parathyroid hormone; TSH, thyroid stimulating hormone; HRT, hormone replacement treatment; NS, not significant (P > 0.005).
  2. §Mood assessment was performed by the Yesavage self-rated Geriatric Depression Score.