Decreased hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal staining in rats treated with polyphenol extract after hemorrhage/resuscitation. Water- and polyphenol (PP)-gavaged rats were subjected to hemorrhage/resuscitation or sham operation, as described in Fig. 2, and livers were harvested for immunohistochemistry at 18 h after resuscitation. 4-HNE adducts were visualized by immunocytochemistry, as described in Materials and METHODS. The upper panels show sections of sham-operated water-gavaged (left) and livers treated with polyphenol extract (right). The middle panels show sections of water-gavaged (left) and livers treated with polyphenol extract (right) after hemorrhage and resuscitation. The lower panel shows the percentage of 4-HNE staining, determined as described in Materials and METHODS. Bar is 50 μm. Group size was 6 per group. *, p < 0.05 vs wild type.