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Basic research

Edited by Jacobus Eloff, Victor Kuete and Insop Shim

This section covers pre-clinical, in vitro and in vivo studies related to interventions or resources in the complementary medicine field, including the isolation and purification of herbal remedies, toxicological studies and research into the biological mechanisms of action of the intervention or resource.

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  1. Mulberry leaf as a traditional Chinese medicine is able to treat obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. It is well known that diabetes leads to intestinal microbiota dysbiosis. It is also recently discovered tha...

    Authors: Zhan-Zhong Liu, Qing-Hua Liu, Zhao Liu, Jia-Wei Tang, Eng-Guan Chua, Fen Li, Xue-Song Xiong, Meng-Meng Wang, Peng-Bo Wen, Xin-Yi Shi, Xiang-Yu Xi, Xiao Zhang and Liang Wang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:172

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts more than 80% of the lung cancer cases. Polysaccharides in rice bran and its fermentation products have been proven to suppress many cancers. However, the report on ...

    Authors: Wei Han, Hongjuan Chen, Lin Zhou, Haijie Zou, Xiaohong Luo, Bo Sun and Xuhui Zhuang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:169

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Himalayan Columbine (Aquilegia pubiflora Wall. Ex Royle) is a medicinal plant and have been used as traditional treatments for various human diseases including skin burns, jaundice, hepatitis, wound healing, card...

    Authors: Hasnain Jan, Hazrat Usman, Muzamil Shah, Gouhar Zaman, Sadaf Mushtaq, Samantha Drouet, Christophe Hano and Bilal Haider Abbasi

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:165

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Antibiotic resistance has contributed to the burden of infectious diseases both in the hospital and community setting, and represents a great threat to public health. Previous studies have revealed the role of...

    Authors: Irene Chinda Kengne, Léonel Donald Tsamo Feugap, Abdel Jélil Njouendou, Claudia Darille Jouogo Ngnokam, Mahamat Djamalladine Djamalladine, David Ngnokam, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko and Jean-De-Dieu Tamokou

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:164

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Recent experimental studies using herbal extracts have shown the possibility of peripheral nerve regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of herbal extracts on peripheral nerve regeneration in...

    Authors: Young Jun Kim, Kyu Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Lee, Seong-Uk Park and Seung-Yeon Cho

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:162

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Safrole is a natural compound extracted from various plants, and has shown various biological activities. The current study aimed to investigate the antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anticancer act...

    Authors: Ahmad M. Eid and Mohammed Hawash

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:159

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Icariin (ICAR) is the main effective component extracted from epimedium, and is reported to have the potential to treat osteoarthritis (OA). However, its pharmacological function on chondrocytes has not been f...

    Authors: Guoyou Wang, Lei Zhang, Huarui Shen, Qi Hao, Shijie Fu and Xia Liu

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:152

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease which causes disability and threatens the health of humans. Therefore, it is of great significance to seek novel effective drugs for RA. It has been reported ...

    Authors: Meng Zhang, Hongwei Ren, Kun Li, Shengsheng Xie, Ru Zhang, Longlong Zhang, Jiaxuan Xia, Xing Chen, Xilin Li and Jianxin Wang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:149

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Resistance to traditional antifungal agents is a considerable health problem nowadays, aggravated by infectious processes related to biofilm formation, usually on implantable devices. Therefore, it is necessar...

    Authors: María Coronada Fernández-Calderón, Laura Hernández-González, Carolina Gómez-Navia, María Teresa Blanco-Blanco, Rosa Sánchez-Silos, Leopoldo Lucio and Ciro Pérez-Giraldo

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:147

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Salidroside (SAL) is a bioactive compound extracted from Rhodiola rosea with various biological properties. This study was designed to explore the functions of SAL on the endothelial damage induced by lipopolysac...

    Authors: Lijiao You, Di Zhang, Huan Geng, Fangyuan Sun and Ming Lei

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:146

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Herbal remedies of Echinacea purpurea tinctures are widely used today to reduce common cold respiratory tract infections.

    Authors: Ken Declerck, Claudina Perez Novo, Lisa Grielens, Guy Van Camp, Andreas Suter and Wim Vanden Berghe

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:141

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Prevention of metastatic invasion is one of the main challenges in the treatment of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Still the therapeutic options are limited. Therefore, an anti-tumor screening was initiated focusi...

    Authors: Anna Adamus, Iftikhar Ali, Vasileios Vasileiadis, Luai Al-Hileh, Jan Lisec, Marcus Frank, Guido Seitz and Nadja Engel

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:136

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Nerium oleander (L.) is well known traditionally used medicinal plant with several pharmacological activities. However, the anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory activity and in vivo toxicity potential of floral part...

    Authors: Yousra Shafiq, Syed Baqir Shyum Naqvi, Ghazala H. Rizwani, Muhammad Arif Asghar, Rabia Bushra, Sana Ghayas, Ahad Abdul Rehman and Muhammad Asif Asghar

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:135

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Paraquat, (PQ), an herbicide that can induce Parkinsonian-like symptoms in rodents and humans. The consumption of phytochemical-rich plants can reduce the risk of chronic illnesses such as inflammation and neu...

    Authors: Samah M. Fathy, Heba A. El-Dash and Noha I. Said

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:130

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The dried rhizome of Ligusticum sinense Oliv.cv. Chaxiong has been used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, anemia and stroke. A high purity extract from chaxiong (VOC, brownish...

    Authors: Peng-yi Hu, Ying-huai Zhong, Jian-fang Feng, Dong-xun Li, Ping Deng, Wen-liu Zhang, Zhi-qiang Lei, Xue-mei Liu and Guo-song Zhang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:129

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Alisol A 24-acetate (AA-24-a), one of the main active triterpenes isolated from the well-known medicinal plant Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juz., exhibits multiple biological activities including hypolipidemic activit...

    Authors: Hai-xia Lou, Wen-cheng Fu, Jia-xiang Chen, Tian-tian Li, Ying-ying Jiang, Chun-hui Liu and Wen Zhang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:128

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Probiotics may have beneficial effects on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We separated 4 lactobacillus and 1 saccharomycetes from traditional fermented cheese whey (TFCW) and prepared composite ...

    Authors: Tabusi Manaer, Lan Yu, Xin-Hua Nabi, Dinareer Dilidaxi, Lu Liu and Jialehasibieke Sailike

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:127

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Essential oils are volatile and lipophilic liquid extracts made from plants as secondary metabolites that can be obtained by distillation. To date, several studies have investigated the direct antimicrobial activ...

    Authors: Mareshah Abers, Sydney Schroeder, Linna Goelz, Adrienne Sulser, Tiffany St. Rose, Keely Puchalski and Jeffrey Langland

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:124

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Owing to antibiotic resistance, alternative antimicrobials from medicinal plants are receiving attention as leads for anti-infective agents. This study aimed to investigate selected tree species and their cons...

    Authors: Dorcas A. Gado, Muna Ali Abdalla, Aroke S. Ahmed, Balungile Madikizela, Sanah M. Nkadimeng, Marthie M. Ehlers and Lyndy J. McGaw

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:121

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of Polygonum multiflorum (PM) has attracted considerable interest, but the idiosyncratically hepatotoxic components and endogenous metabolite changes resulting from idiosyncratic ...

    Authors: Yan Lin, Rong Xiao, Bo-hou Xia, Zhi-min Zhang, Chun Li, Ping Wu, Duan-fang Liao and Li-mei Lin

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:120

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Colocasia gigantea, locally named as kochu is well-known due to its various healing power. This research is to investigate the antidiarrheal, antimicrobial and antioxidant possibilities of the methanol soluble ex...

    Authors: Safaet Alam, Mohammad A. Rashid, Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Nazim Uddin Emon, Mohammad Arman, Isa Naina Mohamed and Mohammad Rashedul Haque

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:119

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has become a worldwide concern because of the rising prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus (DM). Despite much energy has been committed to DR research, it remains a difficulty for diab...

    Authors: Fujiao Nie, Jiazhao Yan, Yanjun Ling, Zhengrong Liu, Chaojun Fu, Xiang Li and Yuhui Qin

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:118

    Content type: Research article

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  23. A biofilm is an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) composed of polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids that impede antibiotics and immune cells, thus providing a shielded environment for bact...

    Authors: Sudip Bhandari, Karan Khadayat, Sami Poudel, Sunil Shrestha, Raju Shrestha, Poonam Devkota, Santosh Khanal and Bishnu P. Marasini

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:116

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Morus alba L. bark has been widely used in traditional medicine for treating several inflammatory diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and coughing; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its a...

    Authors: Lin Umeyama, Besse Hardianti, Shiori Kasahara, Dya Fita Dibwe, Suresh Awale, Satoru Yokoyama and Yoshihiro Hayakawa

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:115

    Content type: Research article

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  25. In Sub-Saharan Africa, herbal therapy continues to be utilized for HIV-1 disease management. However, the therapeutic benefits of these substances remain ambiguous. To date, little is known about the effects o...

    Authors: Omalla A. Olwenyi, Bannet Asingura, Prossy Naluyima, Godwin Upoki Anywar, Justine Nalunga, Mariam Nakabuye, Michael Semwogerere, Bernard Bagaya, Fatim Cham, Allan Tindikahwa, Francis Kiweewa, Eliezer Z. Lichter, Anthony T. Podany, Courtney V. Fletcher, Siddappa N. Byrareddy and Hannah Kibuuka

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:114

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Rumex rothschildianus is the sole member of a unique section of the genus Rumex, in the family Polygonaceae. This species is a very rare small dioecious annual, endemic to Palestine that is traditionally used as ...

    Authors: Nidal Jaradat, Mohammed Hawash and Gada Dass

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:107

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Plants represent an intricate and innovative source for the discovery of novel therapeutic remedies for the management of infectious diseases. The current study aimed at discovering new inhibitors of Leishmania s...

    Authors: Cyrille Armel N. Njanpa, Steven Collins N. Wouamba, Lauve Rachel T. Yamthe, Darline Dize, Brice Mariscal T. Tchatat, Patrick Valère F. Tsouh, Michel Nguiam Pouofo, Jean Bosco Jouda, Bruno Lenta Ndjakou, Norbert Sewald, Simeon Fogue Kouam and Fabrice Fekam Boyom

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:106

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Mahanintangtong is listed in the Thailand’s National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM). It is used to treat non-specific fevers and illnesses such as pharyngitis and chickenpox. In this study, we investigated...

    Authors: Bhanuz Dechayont, Pathompong Phuaklee, Jitpisute Chunthorng-Orn, Thana Juckmeta, Onmanee Prajuabjinda and Kitrawee Jiraratsatit

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:105

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease in the Western world, and it’s likely to parallel the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and o...

    Authors: Tewodros Mengesha, Natesan Gnanasekaran and Tsegaye Mehare

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:104

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:140

  30. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), an age-related neurodegenerative disorder and a serious public health concern, is mainly caused by β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced toxicity. Currently, a limited number of drugs are effective ...

    Authors: Xin Zhang, Chenjing Ma, Long Sun, Zhao He, Ying Feng, Xian Li, Jin Gan and Xiaoming Chen

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:103

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Acute myocardial injury (AMI), which is induced by renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR), is a significant cause of acute kidney injury (AKI)-related associated death. Obesity increases the severity and frequency of...

    Authors: He Tai, Xiao-lin Jiang, Zhi-ming Lan, Yue Li, Liang Kong, Si-cheng Yao, Nan Song, Mei-jun Lv, Jin Wu, Ping Yang, Xuan-si Xiao, Guan-lin Yang, Jin-song Kuang and Lian-qun Jia

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:100

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Gelsemium elegans Benth (GEB) is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used for treatment for gastrointestinal cancer...

    Authors: Wancai Que, Maohua Chen, Ling Yang, Bingqing Zhang, Zhichang Zhao, Maobai Liu, Yu Cheng and Hongqiang Qiu

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:99

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Plants with an ethnobotanical history are known to harbor diverse group of endophytic fungi, which constitute major natural sources of bioactive compounds. In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant ac...

    Authors: Mutiat Ibrahim, Elizabeth Oyebanji, Muinah Fowora, Ayobami Aiyeolemi, Chiamaka Orabuchi, Babajide Akinnawo and Adedotun A. Adekunle

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:98

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd).Miers is a perennial climbing medicinal shrub that has been traditionally used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory ailments. Our previous pre- clinical studies on anti-inflammat...

    Authors: Sheena Philip, Greeshma Tom, Padmaja Balakrishnan Nair, Sankar Sundaram and Asha Velikkakathu Vasumathy

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:97

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Herbal medicines are fast gaining popularity. However, their acceptability by modern practitioners is low which is often due to lack of standardization. Several approaches towards standardization of herbals ha...

    Authors: Manasi S. Gholkar, Jia V. Li, Poonam G. Daswani, P. Tetali and Tannaz J. Birdi

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:95

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Some viruses play a key role in the disturbance of the digestive system. The common viruses which cause infectious diarrhoea (gastroenteritis) include astrovirus, caliciviruses, coronavirus and torovirus which...

    Authors: Katlego E. Motlhatlego, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Muna Ali Abdalla, Jacobus N. Eloff and Lyndy J. McGaw

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:92

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression and serum level of AMH in first-generation female mice pups following fennel and flaxseed consumption.

    Authors: Fahimeh Pourjafari, Tahereh Haghpanah, Fariba Sharififar, Seyed Noreddin Nematollahi-Mahani, Ali Afgar and Massood Ezzatabadipour

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:90

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is a common type of oral cancer, with a relatively poor prognosis and low post-treatment survival rate. Various strategies and novel drugs to treat TSCC are emerging and u...

    Authors: Zeyao Zhu, Zhenguang Ying, Meiqi Zeng, Qiang Zhang, Guiqing Liao, Yunliu Liang, Chunman Li, Chengfei Zhang, Xia Wang, Weipeng Jiang, Ping Luan and Ou Sha

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:88

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide due to its strong proliferative and metastatic capabilities. The suppression of these aggressive behaviors is of interest in anticancer drug research...

    Authors: Hien Minh Nguyen, Hoai Thi Nguyen, Suthasinee Seephan, Hang Bich Do, Huy Truong Nguyen, Duc Viet Ho and Varisa Pongrakhananon

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:87

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. has been traditionally used to treat inflammation and liver diseases and its medicinal property may be due to the presence of relatively high levels of hydrosable tannins. Recent report...

    Authors: Swee Keong Yeap, Chean Yeah Yong, Umar Faruq, Hui Kian Ong, Zahiah binti Mohamed Amin, Wan Yong Ho, Shaiful Sharifudin and Indu Bala Jaganath

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:86

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is classically associated with acute secretory diarrhea, which induces 2 million people death in developing countries over a year, predominantly children in the first years...

    Authors: Xu Song, Yi Yang, Junzhi Li, Mengxue He, Yuanfeng Zou, Renyong Jia, Lixia Li, Juan Hang, Min Cui, Lu Bai and Zhongqiong Yin

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:84

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is characterized by the formation of tubular structure inside the tumor stroma. It has been shown that a small fraction of cancer cells, namely cancer stem cells (CSCs), could stimula...

    Authors: Sanya Haiaty, Mohammad-Reza Rashidi, Maryam Akbarzadeh, Ahad Bazmany, Mostafa Mostafazadeh, Saba Nikanfar, Zohre Zibaei, Reza Rahbarghazi and Mohammad Nouri

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:83

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic allergic inflammatory skin disease characterized by complex pathogenesis including skin barrier dysfunction, immune-redox disturbances, and pruritus. Prolonged topical treat...

    Authors: Johny Bajgai, Jing Xingyu, Ailyn Fadriquela, Rahima Begum, Dong Heui Kim, Cheol-Su Kim, Soo-Ki Kim and Kyu-Jae Lee

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:82

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl precursor for the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) associated with age-related diseases, including diabetes and its complications. Clitoria te...

    Authors: Poramin Chayaratanasin, Sirichai Adisakwattana and Thavaree Thilavech

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:80

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Sha-Shen-Mai-Dong decoction (SSMD) is a classical prescription widely used in primary Sjogren’s Syndrome (pSS) therapy. This study aims to explore the potential pharmacological mechanism of SSMD on pSS.

    Authors: Yuepeng Jiang, Xiaoxuan Zhao, Jie Yu, Qiao Wang, Chengping Wen and Lin Huang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:79

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Oxidative stress and inflammation promote the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Therefore, inhibiting these processes may show beneficial effects in the treatment of patients with DCM. Taohuajing (...

    Authors: Rui Yao, Yu Cao, Changming Wang, Lu Xu, Xuan Zhang, Yuqing Deng, Feng Li and Siwang Wang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:78

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease (CD) or American trypanosomiasis, an important public health problem in Latin America. Benznidazole (BZ), a drug available for its treatment, has limit...

    Authors: Marcella Paula Mansano Sarto, Hevillyn Fernanda Lucas da Silva, Nilma de Souza Fernandes, Ana Paula de Abreu, Gerson Zanusso Junior and Max Jean de Ornelas Toledo

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:77

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Procyanidin B2 (PB2), a unique component of the grape seed and other medicinal plants. PB2 has shown wide anticancer activity in various human cancer cells. However, it remains unclear about the biological eff...

    Authors: Yuqin Li, Xiaolan Lu, Peiying Tian, Kai Wang and Jianping Shi

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:76

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Medicinal plants have wide medicament application used to prevent and management of many ailments. These plants are used for primary health care in pastoralist communities who are deprived of modern medical ca...

    Authors: Eshetu Gadisa and Elazar Tadesse

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:74

    Content type: Research article

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  50. Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. (autumn olive) is a high valued medicinal plant. It belongs to Elaeagnaceae family and is widely distributed in Himalayan regions of Pakistan. In the present study essential oil were ex...

    Authors: Nausheen Nazir, Muhammad Zahoor, Faheem Uddin and Mohammad Nisar

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:73

    Content type: Research article

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