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Basic research

Edited by Jacobus Eloff, Victor Kuete and Insop Shim

This section covers pre-clinical, in vitro and in vivo studies related to interventions or resources in the complementary medicine field, including the isolation and purification of herbal remedies, toxicological studies and research into the biological mechanisms of action of the intervention or resource.

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  1. Owing to antibiotic resistance, alternative antimicrobials from medicinal plants are receiving attention as leads for anti-infective agents. This study aimed to investigate selected tree species and their cons...

    Authors: Dorcas A. Gado, Muna Ali Abdalla, Aroke S. Ahmed, Balungile Madikizela, Sanah M. Nkadimeng, Marthie M. Ehlers and Lyndy J. McGaw

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:121

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of Polygonum multiflorum (PM) has attracted considerable interest, but the idiosyncratically hepatotoxic components and endogenous metabolite changes resulting from idiosyncratic ...

    Authors: Yan Lin, Rong Xiao, Bo-hou Xia, Zhi-min Zhang, Chun Li, Ping Wu, Duan-fang Liao and Li-mei Lin

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:120

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Colocasia gigantea, locally named as kochu is well-known due to its various healing power. This research is to investigate the antidiarrheal, antimicrobial and antioxidant possibilities of the methanol soluble ex...

    Authors: Safaet Alam, Mohammad A. Rashid, Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Nazim Uddin Emon, Mohammad Arman, Isa Naina Mohamed and Mohammad Rashedul Haque

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:119

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has become a worldwide concern because of the rising prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus (DM). Despite much energy has been committed to DR research, it remains a difficulty for diab...

    Authors: Fujiao Nie, Jiazhao Yan, Yanjun Ling, Zhengrong Liu, Chaojun Fu, Xiang Li and Yuhui Qin

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:118

    Content type: Research article

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  5. A biofilm is an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) composed of polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids that impede antibiotics and immune cells, thus providing a shielded environment for bact...

    Authors: Sudip Bhandari, Karan Khadayat, Sami Poudel, Sunil Shrestha, Raju Shrestha, Poonam Devkota, Santosh Khanal and Bishnu P. Marasini

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:116

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Morus alba L. bark has been widely used in traditional medicine for treating several inflammatory diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and coughing; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its a...

    Authors: Lin Umeyama, Besse Hardianti, Shiori Kasahara, Dya Fita Dibwe, Suresh Awale, Satoru Yokoyama and Yoshihiro Hayakawa

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:115

    Content type: Research article

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  7. In Sub-Saharan Africa, herbal therapy continues to be utilized for HIV-1 disease management. However, the therapeutic benefits of these substances remain ambiguous. To date, little is known about the effects o...

    Authors: Omalla A. Olwenyi, Bannet Asingura, Prossy Naluyima, Godwin Upoki Anywar, Justine Nalunga, Mariam Nakabuye, Michael Semwogerere, Bernard Bagaya, Fatim Cham, Allan Tindikahwa, Francis Kiweewa, Eliezer Z. Lichter, Anthony T. Podany, Courtney V. Fletcher, Siddappa N. Byrareddy and Hannah Kibuuka

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:114

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Rumex rothschildianus is the sole member of a unique section of the genus Rumex, in the family Polygonaceae. This species is a very rare small dioecious annual, endemic to Palestine that is traditionally used as ...

    Authors: Nidal Jaradat, Mohammed Hawash and Gada Dass

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:107

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Plants represent an intricate and innovative source for the discovery of novel therapeutic remedies for the management of infectious diseases. The current study aimed at discovering new inhibitors of Leishmania s...

    Authors: Cyrille Armel N. Njanpa, Steven Collins N. Wouamba, Lauve Rachel T. Yamthe, Darline Dize, Brice Mariscal T. Tchatat, Patrick Valère F. Tsouh, Michel Nguiam Pouofo, Jean Bosco Jouda, Bruno Lenta Ndjakou, Norbert Sewald, Simeon Fogue Kouam and Fabrice Fekam Boyom

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:106

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Mahanintangtong is listed in the Thailand’s National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM). It is used to treat non-specific fevers and illnesses such as pharyngitis and chickenpox. In this study, we investigated...

    Authors: Bhanuz Dechayont, Pathompong Phuaklee, Jitpisute Chunthorng-Orn, Thana Juckmeta, Onmanee Prajuabjinda and Kitrawee Jiraratsatit

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:105

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease in the Western world, and it’s likely to parallel the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and o...

    Authors: Tewodros Mengesha, N. Gnana Sekaran and Tsegaye Mehare

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:104

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), an age-related neurodegenerative disorder and a serious public health concern, is mainly caused by β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced toxicity. Currently, a limited number of drugs are effective ...

    Authors: Xin Zhang, Chenjing Ma, Long Sun, Zhao He, Ying Feng, Xian Li, Jin Gan and Xiaoming Chen

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:103

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Acute myocardial injury (AMI), which is induced by renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR), is a significant cause of acute kidney injury (AKI)-related associated death. Obesity increases the severity and frequency of...

    Authors: He Tai, Xiao-lin Jiang, Zhi-ming Lan, Yue Li, Liang Kong, Si-cheng Yao, Nan Song, Mei-jun Lv, Jin Wu, Ping Yang, Xuan-si Xiao, Guan-lin Yang, Jin-song Kuang and Lian-qun Jia

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:100

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Gelsemium elegans Benth (GEB) is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used for treatment for gastrointestinal cancer...

    Authors: Wancai Que, Maohua Chen, Ling Yang, Bingqing Zhang, Zhichang Zhao, Maobai Liu, Yu Cheng and Hongqiang Qiu

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:99

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Plants with an ethnobotanical history are known to harbor diverse group of endophytic fungi, which constitute major natural sources of bioactive compounds. In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant ac...

    Authors: Mutiat Ibrahim, Elizabeth Oyebanji, Muinah Fowora, Ayobami Aiyeolemi, Chiamaka Orabuchi, Babajide Akinnawo and Adedotun A. Adekunle

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:98

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd).Miers is a perennial climbing medicinal shrub that has been traditionally used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory ailments. Our previous pre- clinical studies on anti-inflammat...

    Authors: Sheena Philip, Greeshma Tom, Padmaja Balakrishnan Nair, Sankar Sundaram and Asha Velikkakathu Vasumathy

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:97

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Herbal medicines are fast gaining popularity. However, their acceptability by modern practitioners is low which is often due to lack of standardization. Several approaches towards standardization of herbals ha...

    Authors: Manasi S. Gholkar, Jia V. Li, Poonam G. Daswani, P. Tetali and Tannaz J. Birdi

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:95

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Some viruses play a key role in the disturbance of the digestive system. The common viruses which cause infectious diarrhoea (gastroenteritis) include astrovirus, caliciviruses, coronavirus and torovirus which...

    Authors: Katlego E. Motlhatlego, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Muna Ali Abdalla, Jacobus N. Eloff and Lyndy J. McGaw

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:92

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression and serum level of AMH in first-generation female mice pups following fennel and flaxseed consumption.

    Authors: Fahimeh Pourjafari, Tahereh Haghpanah, Fariba Sharififar, Seyed Noreddin Nematollahi-Mahani, Ali Afgar and Massood Ezzatabadipour

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:90

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is a common type of oral cancer, with a relatively poor prognosis and low post-treatment survival rate. Various strategies and novel drugs to treat TSCC are emerging and u...

    Authors: Zeyao Zhu, Zhenguang Ying, Meiqi Zeng, Qiang Zhang, Guiqing Liao, Yunliu Liang, Chunman Li, Chengfei Zhang, Xia Wang, Weipeng Jiang, Ping Luan and Ou Sha

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:88

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide due to its strong proliferative and metastatic capabilities. The suppression of these aggressive behaviors is of interest in anticancer drug research...

    Authors: Hien Minh Nguyen, Hoai Thi Nguyen, Suthasinee Seephan, Hang Bich Do, Huy Truong Nguyen, Duc Viet Ho and Varisa Pongrakhananon

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:87

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. has been traditionally used to treat inflammation and liver diseases and its medicinal property may be due to the presence of relatively high levels of hydrosable tannins. Recent report...

    Authors: Swee Keong Yeap, Chean Yeah Yong, Umar Faruq, Hui Kian Ong, Zahiah binti Mohamed Amin, Wan Yong Ho, Shaiful Sharifudin and Indu Bala Jaganath

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:86

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is classically associated with acute secretory diarrhea, which induces 2 million people death in developing countries over a year, predominantly children in the first years...

    Authors: Xu Song, Yi Yang, Junzhi Li, Mengxue He, Yuanfeng Zou, Renyong Jia, Lixia Li, Juan Hang, Min Cui, Lu Bai and Zhongqiong Yin

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:84

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is characterized by the formation of tubular structure inside the tumor stroma. It has been shown that a small fraction of cancer cells, namely cancer stem cells (CSCs), could stimula...

    Authors: Sanya Haiaty, Mohammad-Reza Rashidi, Maryam Akbarzadeh, Ahad Bazmany, Mostafa Mostafazadeh, Saba Nikanfar, Zohre Zibaei, Reza Rahbarghazi and Mohammad Nouri

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:83

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic allergic inflammatory skin disease characterized by complex pathogenesis including skin barrier dysfunction, immune-redox disturbances, and pruritus. Prolonged topical treat...

    Authors: Johny Bajgai, Jing Xingyu, Ailyn Fadriquela, Rahima Begum, Dong Heui Kim, Cheol-Su Kim, Soo-Ki Kim and Kyu-Jae Lee

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:82

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl precursor for the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) associated with age-related diseases, including diabetes and its complications. Clitoria te...

    Authors: Poramin Chayaratanasin, Sirichai Adisakwattana and Thavaree Thilavech

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:80

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Sha-Shen-Mai-Dong decoction (SSMD) is a classical prescription widely used in primary Sjogren’s Syndrome (pSS) therapy. This study aims to explore the potential pharmacological mechanism of SSMD on pSS.

    Authors: Yuepeng Jiang, Xiaoxuan Zhao, Jie Yu, Qiao Wang, Chengping Wen and Lin Huang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:79

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Oxidative stress and inflammation promote the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Therefore, inhibiting these processes may show beneficial effects in the treatment of patients with DCM. Taohuajing (...

    Authors: Rui Yao, Yu Cao, Changming Wang, Lu Xu, Xuan Zhang, Yuqing Deng, Feng Li and Siwang Wang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:78

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease (CD) or American trypanosomiasis, an important public health problem in Latin America. Benznidazole (BZ), a drug available for its treatment, has limit...

    Authors: Marcella Paula Mansano Sarto, Hevillyn Fernanda Lucas da Silva, Nilma de Souza Fernandes, Ana Paula de Abreu, Gerson Zanusso Junior and Max Jean de Ornelas Toledo

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:77

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Procyanidin B2 (PB2), a unique component of the grape seed and other medicinal plants. PB2 has shown wide anticancer activity in various human cancer cells. However, it remains unclear about the biological eff...

    Authors: Yuqin Li, Xiaolan Lu, Peiying Tian, Kai Wang and Jianping Shi

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:76

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Medicinal plants have wide medicament application used to prevent and management of many ailments. These plants are used for primary health care in pastoralist communities who are deprived of modern medical ca...

    Authors: Eshetu Gadisa and Elazar Tadesse

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:74

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. (autumn olive) is a high valued medicinal plant. It belongs to Elaeagnaceae family and is widely distributed in Himalayan regions of Pakistan. In the present study essential oil were ex...

    Authors: Nausheen Nazir, Muhammad Zahoor, Faheem Uddin and Mohammad Nisar

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:73

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most serious and lethal manifestation of coronary heart disease worldwide, presenting extremely high disability and mortality. Our previous studies have shown that Guan...

    Authors: Xiaoxiao Zhang, Changle Shao, Songyi Cheng, Yao Zhu, Bo Liang and Ning Gu

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:72

    Content type: Research article

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  34. In previous studies, Cassia spectabilis DC leaf has shown a good antiplasmodial activity. Therefore, this study is a follow-up study of the extract of leaf of C. spectabilis DC on its in vitro and in vivo antipla...

    Authors: Wiwied Ekasari, Dewi Resty Basuki, Heny Arwati and Tutik Sri Wahyuni

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:71

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is one of the main mechanisms of spinal cord injury (SCI) pathology and can affect the physiological state of neurons. Icariin (ICA), the main pharmacological component of Ep...

    Authors: Chengjie Wu, Guanglu Yang, Yalan Pan, Lei Wang, Pengcheng Tu, Suyang Zheng, Yang Guo and Yong Ma

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:69

    Content type: Research article

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  36. High glucose (HG)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction impairs angiogenesis that is one pivotal factor of wound healing process. Angiogenesis impairment induces delayed wound healing, whereby i...

    Authors: Chatchai Nensat, Worawat Songjang, Rutaiwan Tohtong, Tuangporn Suthiphongchai, Suchada Phimsen, Panthip Rattanasinganchan, Pornphimon Metheenukul, Sarawut Kumphune and Arunya Jiraviriyakul

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:66

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The disparity of harvesting locations can influence the chemical composition of a plant species, which could affect its quality and bioactivity. Terminalia albida is widely used in traditional Guinean medicine wh...

    Authors: Aissata Camara, Mohamed Haddad, Mohamed Sahar Traore, Florence Chapeland-Leclerc, Gwenaël Ruprich-Robert, Isabelle Fourasté, Mamadou Aliou Balde, Jade Royo, Melissa Parny, Philippe Batigne, Marie Salon, Agnès Coste, Aliou Mamadou Balde and Agnès Aubouy

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:64

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Euphorbia helioscopia, conventionally known as sun spurge, has been used as a traditional medicine to treat different diseases owing to its reported antitumor, antiviral and antioxidant activities.

    Authors: Imtiaz Mustafa, Muhammad Naeem Faisal, Ghulam Hussain, Humaira Muzaffar, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Umar Ijaz, Muhammad Umar Sohail, Arslan Iftikhar, Arslan Shaukat and Haseeb Anwar

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:62

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Deer Sinew serves as a medicinal food, and has been used for treating skeletal diseases, especially bone diseases in a long history. Thus, it could become an alternative option for the prevention and therapeut...

    Authors: Zhenwei Zhou, Daqing Zhao, Pengcheng Zhang, Mei Zhang, Xiangyang Leng and Baojin Yao

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:59

    Content type: Research article

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  40. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nanoemulsion containing peppermint and rosemary essential oils in rats with osteoarthritis (OA).

    Authors: Mojgan Mohammadifar, Mohammad Hossein Aarabi, Fatemeh Aghighi, Maryam Kazemi, Zarichehr Vakili, Mohammad Reza Memarzadeh and Sayyed Alireza Talaei

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:57

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most prevalent endocrinopathies in women during the reproductive age. Herbal medicines are used increasingly alone or in supplement with chemical medicines for th...

    Authors: E. Bandariyan, A. Mogheiseh and A. Ahmadi

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:55

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is an effective treatment in craniomaxillofacial surgery. However, the issue of sufficient blood supply at the regeneration tissue has limited its wide application. Panax notoginseng...

    Authors: Peiqi Zhu, Weidong Jiang, Shixi He, Tao Zhang, Fengchun Liao, Di Liu, Xiaoning An, Xuanping Huang and Nuo Zhou

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:53

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Ursolic acid (UA) is an anti-cancer herbal compound. In the present study, we observed the effects of UA on anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of human colorectal cancer (CRC) RKO cells.

    Authors: Jia-Lu Zheng, Shuang-Shuang Wang, Ke-Ping Shen, Lei Chen, Xiao Peng, Jin-Fang Chen, Hong-Mei An and Bing Hu

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:52

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Chlorella vulgaris is a microalga potentially used for pharmaceutical, animal feed, food supplement, aquaculture and cosmetics. The current study aims to study the antioxidant and prooxidant effect of Chlorella v...

    Authors: Eman A. El-fayoumy, Sanaa M. M. Shanab, Hanan S. Gaballa, Mohamed A. Tantawy and Emad A. Shalaby

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:51

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Otostegia integrifolia Benth. (Lamiaceae) leaves are used to treat hypertension in Ethiopian folk medicine. However, the claim has so far not been investigated scientifically. Thus, the objective of this study wa...

    Authors: Abel Degu, Abiy Abebe and Ephrem Engidawork

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:49

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The frequent incidence of fungal infection and widespread of antibiotic resistance are emergent concerns in public health. Hence, there is a need to harness the potential of natural bioactive compounds from pl...

    Authors: Clement Olusola Ogidi, Ayokunbi Elizabeth Ojo, Oluwatayo Benjamin Ajayi-Moses, Oluwatoyin Modupe Aladejana, Oluwakemi Abike Thonda and Bamidele Juliet Akinyele

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:47

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Solanum nigrum L. decoction has been used as a folklore medicine in China to prevent the postoperative recurrence of bladder cancer (BC). However, there are no previous pharmacological studies on the protective m...

    Authors: Yang Dong, Lin Hao, Kun Fang, Xiao-xiao Han, Hui Yu, Jian-jun Zhang, Long-jun Cai, Tao Fan, Wen-da Zhang, Kun Pang, Wei-ming Ma, Xi-tao Wang and Cong-hui Han

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:45

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a liver disease caused by a nonalcoholic fatty liver, is increasing in incidence worldwide. Owing to the complexity of its pathogenic mechanisms, there are no therapeutic a...

    Authors: Yang-Ju Son, Da Seul Jung, Ji Min Shin, Myungsuk Kim, Gyhye Yoo and Chu Won Nho

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:44

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Periodontitis is a chronic infection initiated by oral bacterial and their virulence factors, yet the severity of periodontitis is largely determined by the dysregulated host immuno-inflammatory response. Baic...

    Authors: Manman Ren, Ya Zhao, Zhiqi He, Jian Lin, Chuchu Xu, Fen Liu, Rongdang Hu, Hui Deng and Yi Wang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:43

    Content type: Research article

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  50. The sentence of “Danshen (Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma) and Siwu decoction are similar in function” was first recorded in an ancient Chinese medical book “Fu Ren Ming Li Lun”. This theory has far-reac...

    Authors: Yang Li, Li Qiao, Cong Chen, Zhenguo Wang and Xianjun Fu

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:42

    Content type: Research article

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