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Basic research

Edited by Jacobus Eloff, Victor Kuete and Insop Shim

This section covers pre-clinical, in vitro and in vivo studies related to interventions or resources in the complementary medicine field, including the isolation and purification of herbal remedies, toxicological studies and research into the biological mechanisms of action of the intervention or resource.

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  1. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), the second leading cause of genital infection in women of reproductive age, is caused by yeasts of the genus Candida. Treatment is usually empirical and performed with azoles, whic...

    Authors: Aline Lorenzoni Paniágua, Amabel Fernandes Correia, Lívia Custódio Pereira, Bruna Maciel de Alencar, Fabiana Brandão Alves Silva, Rosane Mansan Almeida and Yanna Karla de Medeiros Nóbrega

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:237

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Siraitia grosvenorii (binomial name Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) C. Jeffrey ex Lu et Z. Y. Zhang), also called Arhat Fruit or Monk’s Fruit, is a dried ripe fruit belonging to the Cucurbitaceae Family. S. grosve...

    Authors: Wei Dong, Jia Zeng, Qin Wang, Xin Jiang and Ting Huang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:235

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Uvaria chamae (UC) and Olax subscorpioidea (OS) roots are included in traditional anti-cancer remedies and some studies have identified their chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic potential. This study aimed to identi...

    Authors: Temidayo D. Popoola, Stephanie T. Guetchueng, Kenneth J. Ritchie, Olufunsho Awodele, Nicola M. Dempster, Oluyemi Akinloye, Satyajit D. Sarker and Amos A. Fatokun

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:234

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Neorautanenia mitis, Hydnora abyssinica, and Senna surattensis are medicinal plants with a variety of traditional uses. In this study, we sought to isolate the bioactive compounds responsible for some of these ac...

    Authors: Christiana J. Dawurung, Minh T. H. Nguyen, Jutharat Pengon, Kanchana Dokladda, Ratchanu Bunyong, Roonglawan Rattanajak, Sumalee Kamchonwongpaisan, Phuong T. M. Nguyen and Stephen G. Pyne

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:231

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Little is known about the medical material and practices of tribes in the western border areas of Pakistan. The local population has inhabited this remote and isolated area for centuries, and gained medicinal ...

    Authors: Khalid Ahmad, Mushtaq Ahmad, Franz K. Huber and Caroline S. Weckerle

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:230

    Content type: Research article

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  6. We previously reported that the tomato glycoalkaloid tomatine inhibited the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis strain G3, Tritrichomonas foetus strain D1, and Tritrichomonas foetus-like strain C1 that cause disease ...

    Authors: Christina C. Tam, Kevin Nguyen, Daniel Nguyen, Sabrina Hamada, Okhun Kwon, Irene Kuang, Steven Gong, Sydney Escobar, Max Liu, Jihwan Kim, Tiffany Hou, Justin Tam, Luisa W. Cheng, Jong H. Kim, Kirkwood M. Land and Mendel Friedman

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:229

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Leucas cephalotes is a common ethnomedicinal plant widely used by traditional healers for the treatment of Malaria and other types of fever. Oleanolic acid and its derivatives have been reported for various types...

    Authors: Sulochana Kaushik, Lalit Dar, Samander Kaushik and Jaya Parkash Yadav

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:227

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Increasing attention has been paid to the effect of Epimedium on the nervous system, particularly anti-depression function. In the present study, we applied network pharmacology to introduce a testable hypothesis...

    Authors: Yankai Dong, Bo Tao, Xing Xue, Caixia Feng, Yating Ren, Hengyu Ma, Junli Zhang, Yufang Si, Sisi Zhang, Si Liu, Hui Li, Jiahao Zhou, Ge Li, Zhifei Wang, Juanping Xie and Zhongliang Zhu

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:222

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The current study was aimed to investigate the anti-allergic activities of the Umbelliferone (UMB) against the acute Histamine and chronic Picryl chloride (PiCl)-induced allergy in mice. UMB is a coumarin deri...

    Authors: Younas, Ashrafullah Khan, Omer Shehzad, Eun Kyoung Seo, Alev Onder and Salman Khan

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:215

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), the most abundant functional component of wolfberry, is considered a potent antioxidant and an anti-ageing substance. This review aims to outline the hallmarks of ageing in t...

    Authors: Junguo Ni, Manting Au, Hangkin Kong, Xinluan Wang and Chunyi Wen

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:212

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The chemical composition and biological activity of Eucalyptus essential oils have been studied extensively (EOs). A few of them were tested for antibacterial effectiveness against otitis strains. The chemical...

    Authors: Elaissi Ameur, Moumni Sarra, Derbali Yosra, Kouja Mariem, Abid Nabil, Frederic Lynen and Khouja Mohamed Larbi

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:209

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Integrating systems biology is an approach for investigating metabolic diseases in humans. However, few studies use this approach to investigate the mechanism by which Rhizoma coptidis (RC) reduces the effect of ...

    Authors: Yanhua Ji, Kexin Luo, Jiri Mutu Zhang, Peng Ni, Wangping Xiong, Xiaoquan Luo, Guoliang Xu, Hongning Liu and Zhijun Zeng

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:208

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Bupi Yishen Formula (BYF), a patent traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulation, has been used in the clinical treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the mechanism of action of BYF has not been...

    Authors: Yenan Mo, Xina Jie, Lixin Wang, Chunlan Ji, Yueyu Gu, Zhaoyu Lu and Xusheng Liu

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:207

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, but there is still no effective way to stop or slow its progression. Our previous studies demonstrated that extract of Cynomorium so...

    Authors: Dan Cheng, Lei Su, Xu Wang, Xinjie Li, Lingling Li, Mengyuan Hu and Yi Lu

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:206

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Gout is initiated by the precipitation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals within the joints and soft tissues, and it can eventually cause acute or chronic arthritis. MSU crystals trigger, amplify, and maintain...

    Authors: Hao-fei Fan, Xing-yue Fang, Hao-lin Wu, Yi-qian Xu, Li-chong Gong, Dao-rui Yu, Hao Jia, Xiao-liang Tang and Qi-bing Liu

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:202

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the leading cause of death among men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Piperlongumine (PL) is a novel potential anticancer agent that has been demonstrat...

    Authors: Ding-fang Zhang, Zhi-chun Yang, Jian-qiang Chen, Xiang-xiang Jin, Yin-da Qiu, Xiao-jing Chen, Hong-yi Shi, Zhi-guo Liu, Min-shan Wang, Guang Liang and Xiao-hui Zheng

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:195

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Metastasis is the leading cause of death among breast cancer patients. MicroRNA-134 has been reported to have a tumor-suppressive role in breast cancer. Ruyiping (RYP), a traditional Chinese formula, has been ...

    Authors: Ziwei Jiang, Lixia Pei, Ying Xie, Qun Ye, Xiaoqiang Liang, Yiyi Ye and Sheng Liu

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:191

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Radioresistance can pose a significant obstacle to the effective treatment of breast cancers. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical step in the acquisition of stem cell traits and radioresistan...

    Authors: Jiraporn Kantapan, Siwaphon Paksee, Aphidet Duangya, Padchanee Sangthong, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Sucheewin Krobthong, Wipob Suttana and Nathupakorn Dechsupa

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:189

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Flavonoids are compounds of interest in the search for new anti-cancer therapies. We have previously isolated the methoxyflavones 5,4′-dihydroxy-6,7,8,3′-tetramethoxyflavone (8-methoxycirsilineol), 5,4′-dihydr...

    Authors: Wendy Soria Sotillo, Santiago Tarqui, Xiaoli Huang, Giovanna Almanza and Stina Oredsson

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:188

    Content type: Research article

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  20. In order to find a new natural resource for pain-relief, the analgesic effects of Ilex dipyrena crude extract, fractions, and subfractions were evaluated in in-vivo mouse models with possible mechanism of action.

    Authors: Amjad Ali, Abdul Nasir, Syed Wadood Ali Shah, Atif Ali Khan Khalil, Mi-jeong Ahn, Syed Muhammad Mukarram Shah, Fazli Subhan, Muhammad Faheem, Wasim Sajjad, Mohammad Shoaib, Saeed Ahmad, Nausheen Nazir and Mohammad Nisar

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:184

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Endodesmia calophylloides and Hymenostegia afzelii belong to the Guttiferae and Caesalpiniaceae plant families with known uses in African ethno-medicine to treat malaria and several other diseases. This study aim...

    Authors: Rodrigue Keumoe, Jean Garba Koffi, Darline Dize, Patrick Valère Tsouh Fokou, Joseph Tchamgoue, Lawrence Ayong, Bruno Lenta Ndjakou, Norbert Sewald, Bathelemy Ngameni and Fabrice Fekam Boyom

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:180

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Acacia senegal is a plant traditionally used for its various properties, including the treatment of infectious diseases. Recently, our team has demonstrated the ability of the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves...

    Authors: René Dofini Magnini, Mathieu Nitiéma, Geoffroy G. Ouédraogo, Sylvain Ilboudo, Alimata Bancé, Hassanata Millogo-Koné, Carole Di Giorgio, Jean-Marie Pagès, Adama Hilou and Anne Davin-Regli

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:178

    Content type: Research article

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  23. β-lactam antibiotics are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics consisting of all antibiotic agents that contain a β-lactam ring in their molecular structures. β-lactam antibiotics are only known to be isolated...

    Authors: Tiffany Turner, Guillermo Ruiz, Johanne Gerstel and Jeffrey Langland

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:177

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Ardisia crispa (Thunb.) A.DC (Primulaceae), is a medicinal herb traditionally used by Asian people as remedies to cure inflammatory related diseases, including rheumatism. The plant roots possess various pharmaco...

    Authors: Joan Anak Blin, Roslida Abdul Hamid and Huzwah Khaza’ai

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:176

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Plantaginis Semen has been widely used as folk medicine and health care food against hyperuricemia (HUA) and gout, but its pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the therapeutic mec...

    Authors: Fei Yang, Wenjun Shi, Liting Wang, Nankun Qin, Chengxiang Wang, Yuying Guo, Guang Xu, Jie Fang, Xue Yu and Qun Ma

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:175

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Mulberry leaf as a traditional Chinese medicine is able to treat obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. It is well known that diabetes leads to intestinal microbiota dysbiosis. It is also recently discovered tha...

    Authors: Zhan-Zhong Liu, Qing-Hua Liu, Zhao Liu, Jia-Wei Tang, Eng-Guan Chua, Fen Li, Xue-Song Xiong, Meng-Meng Wang, Peng-Bo Wen, Xin-Yi Shi, Xiang-Yu Xi, Xiao Zhang and Liang Wang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:172

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts more than 80% of the lung cancer cases. Polysaccharides in rice bran and its fermentation products have been proven to suppress many cancers. However, the report on ...

    Authors: Wei Han, Hongjuan Chen, Lin Zhou, Haijie Zou, Xiaohong Luo, Bo Sun and Xuhui Zhuang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:169

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Himalayan Columbine (Aquilegia pubiflora Wall. Ex Royle) is a medicinal plant and have been used as traditional treatments for various human diseases including skin burns, jaundice, hepatitis, wound healing, card...

    Authors: Hasnain Jan, Hazrat Usman, Muzamil Shah, Gouhar Zaman, Sadaf Mushtaq, Samantha Drouet, Christophe Hano and Bilal Haider Abbasi

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:165

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Antibiotic resistance has contributed to the burden of infectious diseases both in the hospital and community setting, and represents a great threat to public health. Previous studies have revealed the role of...

    Authors: Irene Chinda Kengne, Léonel Donald Tsamo Feugap, Abdel Jélil Njouendou, Claudia Darille Jouogo Ngnokam, Mahamat Djamalladine Djamalladine, David Ngnokam, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko and Jean-De-Dieu Tamokou

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:164

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Recent experimental studies using herbal extracts have shown the possibility of peripheral nerve regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of herbal extracts on peripheral nerve regeneration in...

    Authors: Young Jun Kim, Kyu Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Lee, Seong-Uk Park and Seung-Yeon Cho

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:162

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Safrole is a natural compound extracted from various plants, and has shown various biological activities. The current study aimed to investigate the antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anticancer act...

    Authors: Ahmad M. Eid and Mohammed Hawash

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:159

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Icariin (ICAR) is the main effective component extracted from epimedium, and is reported to have the potential to treat osteoarthritis (OA). However, its pharmacological function on chondrocytes has not been f...

    Authors: Guoyou Wang, Lei Zhang, Huarui Shen, Qi Hao, Shijie Fu and Xia Liu

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:152

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease which causes disability and threatens the health of humans. Therefore, it is of great significance to seek novel effective drugs for RA. It has been reported ...

    Authors: Meng Zhang, Hongwei Ren, Kun Li, Shengsheng Xie, Ru Zhang, Longlong Zhang, Jiaxuan Xia, Xing Chen, Xilin Li and Jianxin Wang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:149

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Resistance to traditional antifungal agents is a considerable health problem nowadays, aggravated by infectious processes related to biofilm formation, usually on implantable devices. Therefore, it is necessar...

    Authors: María Coronada Fernández-Calderón, Laura Hernández-González, Carolina Gómez-Navia, María Teresa Blanco-Blanco, Rosa Sánchez-Silos, Leopoldo Lucio and Ciro Pérez-Giraldo

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:147

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Salidroside (SAL) is a bioactive compound extracted from Rhodiola rosea with various biological properties. This study was designed to explore the functions of SAL on the endothelial damage induced by lipopolysac...

    Authors: Lijiao You, Di Zhang, Huan Geng, Fangyuan Sun and Ming Lei

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:146

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Herbal remedies of Echinacea purpurea tinctures are widely used today to reduce common cold respiratory tract infections.

    Authors: Ken Declerck, Claudina Perez Novo, Lisa Grielens, Guy Van Camp, Andreas Suter and Wim Vanden Berghe

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:141

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Prevention of metastatic invasion is one of the main challenges in the treatment of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Still the therapeutic options are limited. Therefore, an anti-tumor screening was initiated focusi...

    Authors: Anna Adamus, Iftikhar Ali, Vasileios Vasileiadis, Luai Al-Hileh, Jan Lisec, Marcus Frank, Guido Seitz and Nadja Engel

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:136

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Nerium oleander (L.) is well known traditionally used medicinal plant with several pharmacological activities. However, the anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory activity and in vivo toxicity potential of floral part...

    Authors: Yousra Shafiq, Syed Baqir Shyum Naqvi, Ghazala H. Rizwani, Muhammad Arif Asghar, Rabia Bushra, Sana Ghayas, Ahad Abdul Rehman and Muhammad Asif Asghar

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:135

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Paraquat, (PQ), an herbicide that can induce Parkinsonian-like symptoms in rodents and humans. The consumption of phytochemical-rich plants can reduce the risk of chronic illnesses such as inflammation and neu...

    Authors: Samah M. Fathy, Heba A. El-Dash and Noha I. Said

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:130

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The dried rhizome of Ligusticum sinense Oliv.cv. Chaxiong has been used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, anemia and stroke. A high purity extract from chaxiong (VOC, brownish...

    Authors: Peng-yi Hu, Ying-huai Zhong, Jian-fang Feng, Dong-xun Li, Ping Deng, Wen-liu Zhang, Zhi-qiang Lei, Xue-mei Liu and Guo-song Zhang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:129

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Alisol A 24-acetate (AA-24-a), one of the main active triterpenes isolated from the well-known medicinal plant Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juz., exhibits multiple biological activities including hypolipidemic activit...

    Authors: Hai-xia Lou, Wen-cheng Fu, Jia-xiang Chen, Tian-tian Li, Ying-ying Jiang, Chun-hui Liu and Wen Zhang

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:128

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Probiotics may have beneficial effects on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We separated 4 lactobacillus and 1 saccharomycetes from traditional fermented cheese whey (TFCW) and prepared composite ...

    Authors: Tabusi Manaer, Lan Yu, Xin-Hua Nabi, Dinareer Dilidaxi, Lu Liu and Jialehasibieke Sailike

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:127

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Essential oils are volatile and lipophilic liquid extracts made from plants as secondary metabolites that can be obtained by distillation. To date, several studies have investigated the direct antimicrobial activ...

    Authors: Mareshah Abers, Sydney Schroeder, Linna Goelz, Adrienne Sulser, Tiffany St. Rose, Keely Puchalski and Jeffrey Langland

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:124

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Owing to antibiotic resistance, alternative antimicrobials from medicinal plants are receiving attention as leads for anti-infective agents. This study aimed to investigate selected tree species and their cons...

    Authors: Dorcas A. Gado, Muna Ali Abdalla, Aroke S. Ahmed, Balungile Madikizela, Sanah M. Nkadimeng, Marthie M. Ehlers and Lyndy J. McGaw

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:121

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of Polygonum multiflorum (PM) has attracted considerable interest, but the idiosyncratically hepatotoxic components and endogenous metabolite changes resulting from idiosyncratic ...

    Authors: Yan Lin, Rong Xiao, Bo-hou Xia, Zhi-min Zhang, Chun Li, Ping Wu, Duan-fang Liao and Li-mei Lin

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:120

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Colocasia gigantea, locally named as kochu is well-known due to its various healing power. This research is to investigate the antidiarrheal, antimicrobial and antioxidant possibilities of the methanol soluble ex...

    Authors: Safaet Alam, Mohammad A. Rashid, Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Nazim Uddin Emon, Mohammad Arman, Isa Naina Mohamed and Mohammad Rashedul Haque

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:119

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has become a worldwide concern because of the rising prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus (DM). Despite much energy has been committed to DR research, it remains a difficulty for diab...

    Authors: Fujiao Nie, Jiazhao Yan, Yanjun Ling, Zhengrong Liu, Chaojun Fu, Xiang Li and Yuhui Qin

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:118

    Content type: Research article

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  48. A biofilm is an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) composed of polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids that impede antibiotics and immune cells, thus providing a shielded environment for bact...

    Authors: Sudip Bhandari, Karan Khadayat, Sami Poudel, Sunil Shrestha, Raju Shrestha, Poonam Devkota, Santosh Khanal and Bishnu P. Marasini

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:116

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Morus alba L. bark has been widely used in traditional medicine for treating several inflammatory diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and coughing; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its a...

    Authors: Lin Umeyama, Besse Hardianti, Shiori Kasahara, Dya Fita Dibwe, Suresh Awale, Satoru Yokoyama and Yoshihiro Hayakawa

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:115

    Content type: Research article

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  50. In Sub-Saharan Africa, herbal therapy continues to be utilized for HIV-1 disease management. However, the therapeutic benefits of these substances remain ambiguous. To date, little is known about the effects o...

    Authors: Omalla A. Olwenyi, Bannet Asingura, Prossy Naluyima, Godwin Upoki Anywar, Justine Nalunga, Mariam Nakabuye, Michael Semwogerere, Bernard Bagaya, Fatim Cham, Allan Tindikahwa, Francis Kiweewa, Eliezer Z. Lichter, Anthony T. Podany, Courtney V. Fletcher, Siddappa N. Byrareddy and Hannah Kibuuka

    Citation: BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 21:114

    Content type: Research article

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