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Table 1 Baseline and socio-demographic characteristics by gender (n = 1004)

From: Prevalence and predictive factors of complementary medicine use during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 in the Netherlands

  Total population Gender
n = 1004 Male
n = 495 (49.3%)
Female
n = 509 (50.7%)
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Age category
 18–30 192 (19.1) 89 (18.0) 103 (20.2)
 31–50 320 (31.9) 158 (31.9) 162 (31.8)
 51–65 267 (26.6) 130 (26.3) 137 (26.9)
 65 +  225 (22.4) 118 (23.8) 107 (21.0)
Education
 Lower Education 167 (16.6) 75 (15.2) 92 (18.1)
 Secondary Education 336 (33.5) 182 (36.8) 154 (30.3)
 Higher Education 501 (49.9) 238 (48.1) 263 (51.7)
Region
 Northern Regions 274 (27.3) 131 (26.5) 143 (28.1)
 Central Regions 277 (27.6) 140 (28.3) 137 (26.9)
 Southern Regions 453 (45.1) 224 (45.3) 229 (45.0)
Living environment
 Urban 467 (46.5) 239 (48.3) 228 (44.8)
 Sub-urban 239 (23.8) 109 (22.0) 130 (25.5)
 Rural/Sub-rural 298 (29.7) 147 (29.7) 151 (29.7)
Living situation
 Married/living together (without children) 386 (38.4) 195 (39.4) 191 (37.5)
 Married/living together (with children) 250 (24.9) 127 (25.7) 123 (24.2)
 Living alone without children 249 (24.8) 117 (23.6) 132 (25.9)
 Living alone with children 33 (3.3) 10 (2.0) 23 (4.5)
 Living with (grand)parents/family 73 (7.3) 39 (7.9) 34 (6.7)
 Student accommodation 13 (1.3) 7 (1.4) 6 (1.2)
Yearly incomea
 Lower income 150 (14.9) 55 (11.1) 95 (18.7)
 Middle income 499 (49.7) 287 (58.0) 212 (41.7)
 Higher income 146 (14.5) 78 (15.8) 68 (13.4)
 Prefer not to say 209 (20.8) 75 (15.2) 134 (26.3)
Worries with regards to COVID-19
To get infected yourself
  Not 390 (38.8) 208 (42.0) 182 (35.8)
  Somewhat 422 (42.0) 205 (41.4) 217 (42.6)
  Very 192 (19.1) 82 (16.6) 110 (21.6)
Close family/friend infecteda
  Not 205 (20.4) 123 (24.8) 82 (16.1)
  Somewhat 472 (47.0) 228 (46.1) 244 (47.9)
  Very 327 (32.6) 144 (29.1) 183 (36.0)
Danger of COVID-19 in comparison with normal influenza virus
  Less dangerous 14 (1.4) 8 (1.6) 6 (1.2)
  Evenly dangerous 156 (15.5) 86 (17.4) 70 (13.8)
  More dangerous 834 (83.1) 401 (81.0) 433 (85.1)
CM use
 General CM useb 683 (68.0) 289 (58.4) 394 (77.4)*
 CM provider consultation 134 (13.3) 53 (10.7) 81 (15.9)*
 Self-management strategies 596 (59.4) 252 (50.9) 344 (67.6)*
  Homeopathic remedies 102 (10.2) 35 (7.1) 67 (13.2)*
  Bach flowers 41 (4.1) 15 (3.0) 26 (5.1)
  Herbal medicine 191 (19.0) 73 (14.7) 118 (23.2)*
  Vitamins/minerals 552 (55.0) 229 (46.3) 323 (63.5)*
  Other CMc 141 (14.0) 64 (12.9) 77 (15.1)
 Self-help techniques 301 (30.0) 107 (21.6) 194 (38.1)*
  1. * Statistically significantly different between sex with p < 0.05
  2. a Division of categories is statistically significantly different between sex
  3. b Included when at least one CM mode (consultation, self-management strategies or self-help techniques) has been used
  4. c Including omega 3, 6, 9; Co-enzyme Q10; Protein drink/shake; Probiotics; Glucosamine-chondroitin-MSM