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Fig. 3 | BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies

Fig. 3

From: Arctiin suppresses H9N2 avian influenza virus-mediated inflammation via activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling

Fig. 3

Effects of arctiin on H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV)-activated host cellular signaling pathways. A549 cells infected with H9N2 AIVs (MOI = 0.1) were treated with or without arctiin (100–300 μg/mL) for 24 h. A Expression level of RIG-I was analyzed by western blot analysis. B Band intensities of RIG-I in (A) were normalized to GAPDH by densitometric analysis using ImageJ software. C Effects of arctiin on H9N2-mediated activation of NF-κB and MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) were detected by western blot analysis. D Band intensities of NF-κB and MAPKs in (C) were normalized to GAPDH by densitometric analysis using ImageJ software. The results are expressed as means ± SD. ##p < 0.01 compared with the control group; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01 compared with H9N2 virus infection alone

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