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Table 1 Sample characteristics

From: Utilization of complementary and traditional medicine practitioners among middle-aged and older adults in India: results of a national survey in 2017–2018

Variable Sample AYUSH practitioner Traditional /Folk healers
N (%) % %
All 72,262 6.5 7.0
Age (years)
 45–59 (female spouse: any age) 40,785 (54.1) 6.0 6.6
  ≥ 60 31,477 (45.9) 7.2 7.5
Sex
 Female 41,685 (58.0) 6.9 7.1
 Male 30,577 (42.0) 6.0 6.8
Subjective socioeconomic status
 Low (1–3) 23,625 (37.2) 7.5 9.3
 Medium (4–5) 28,380 (38.7) 6.7 6.4
 High (6–10) 18,134 (24.1) 4.8 4.9
Residence
 Rural 46,539 (68.2) 7.4 9.4
 Urban 25,723 (31.8) 4.6 1.7
Hypertension 19,878 (26.4) 5.8 5.1
Diabetes 8716 (11.6) 4.0 6.9
Chronic lung disease 3902 (6.3) 7.3 6.0
Cancer 472 (0.6) 8.2 7.9
Chronic heart disease 2441 (3.6) 3.4 3.8
Stroke 1220 (1.8) 7.2 5.3
Any bone or joint diseases 10,163 (15.7) 9.2 7.1
Neurological or psychiatric problem 1569 (2.4) 6.1 5.8
Depressive symptoms 17,650 (27.6) 7.1 8.6
Sleep problems 8367 (12.7) 6.6 10.0
Symptom-based pain 19,145 (27.7 8.9 9.9
Current tobacco use 21,071 (30.4) 7.6 9.3
Has health insurance 16,558 (20.7) 3.0 3.5
  1. AYUSH practitioner (Ayurveda/unani/siddha/homeopathy); Traditional/Folk healers (tribal medicine/bhopa/jhaad-fook/black magic)