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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Addressing barriers to the conduct and application of research in complementary and alternative medicine: a scoping review

Author (Year) Methodology utilised Country Participants sample size (n) EBP Barriers addressed Funding (Y/N) Interventions
Allen et al. (2011) [49] Survey USA Faculty (n = 11) Lack of EBP approaches among CAM practitioners Y University developed *EBP course for Natural & Chinese medicine faculty
Caldwell et al. (2018) [51] Action research (survey, focus groups, diary notes, field notes) China Teachers, Assistants (n = 25) & students(n = 86) Lack of research education and training Y International collaboration to assess initial *EBP workshop to help in the redesign
Cramer et al. (2015) [59] Survey USA Principle investigators from CAM and traditional research-intensive institutions (n-19) Lack of research culture in CAM institutions; lack of collaboration between CAM and non-CAM institutions and faculty Y CAM Faculty & *TRI collaboration (seminars, mentorship joint development of courses, *EBP resources, and consulting)
Evans et al. (2011) [53] Descriptive USA Faculty and students Lack of research education and training among CAM practitioners Y CAM & *TRI collaborated faculty development research program
Haas et al. (2012) [50] Prospective cohort (exam scores, questionnaire) USA Students (n = 370) Poor knowledge, attitude, behaviour and skills in EBP Y CAM College & *TRI partnership to incorporate *EBP curriculum in existing 4-year program
Laird et al. (2010) [54] Pre and post USA Course directors (n = 34) Lack of EBP learning in course content Y *EBP workshops series for faculty
Long et al. (2014) [62] Survey USA Program directors of CAM academic institutions (n = 9) Lack of research expertise, literacy and evidence-based practice among CAM faculty Y *EBP literacy & training (e.g. workshops, seminars, online resources, short courses, intensive multiday training programs)
McCarty et al. (2011) [52] Qualitative (Focus group, Interviews) USA Faculty (n = 9) Lack of EBP in CAM education and practice Y Clinical Exchange program between CAM school and *TRI
Schneider et al. (2016) [58] Exploratory randomised trial (survey) USA Practitioners (n = 293) Lack of online EBP distance-learning Y Online *EBP course and booster lessons
Steel, Adams, Sibbritt (2014) [57] Multi-method (Audit, survey) Australia Practitioners (n = 1306) Disconnect between researchers and practitioners Y Establish a protocol for a multi-modality *PBRN
Steel, et al. (2018) [56] Survey Australia Practitioners (n = 764) Disconnect between researchers and practitioners Y Multi-modality, national *PBRN
Sullivan, Furner & Cramer (2013) [60] Multi-method (summaries, semi-structured interviews, surveys) USA Pre-doctoral CAM Students (n = 6) Need for translational, interdisciplinary, and integrative research in CAM Y *TRI mentored research program for CAM institution
Wayne et al. (2008) [55] Descriptive USA Faculty, staff, alumni, students Lack of research education and training in CAM institutions Y Training and research literacy collaboration between CAM school & Medical School
Wong et al. (2019) [63] Pre and post China Students (n = 59) Lack of EBP in practice Y Face-to-face 3-day workshop
Zwickey et al. (2014) [61] Survey USA CAM colleges (n = 9) Lack of research education and training in EBP Y Curricular revision of research literacy teaching
  1. *EBP Evidence-based practice, *PBRN Practitioner-based research network, *TRI Traditional research-intensive