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Table 4 Intervention characteristics

From: Osteopathic empirical research: a bibliometric analysis from 1966 to 2018

Characteristics n (%)
Techniquesa
Musculoskeletal techniques
 Myofascial release 164 (42.2)
 Muscle energy 127 (32.6)
 High velocity low amplitude (HVLA) 118 (30.3)
 Soft tissue 99 (25.4)
 Strain counterstrain 75 (19.3)
 Balanced ligamentous tension (BLT) 68 (17.5)
 Mobilization 59 (15.2)
 Articulatory 58 (14.9)
 Diaphragm release 51 (13.1)
 Rib raising 29 (7.5)
 Facilitated positional release 29 (7.5)
 Muscle inhibition 28 (7.2)
 Still technique 16 (4.1)
 Trigger points 8 (2.1)
 General osteopathic treatment (GOT) 4 (1.0)
 Spencer technique 3 (0.8)
Cranial techniques
 Suboccipital decompression 55 (14.1)
 Cranial – nonspecific 47 (12.1)
 Cranio-sacral and cranio-sacral therapy 35 (9.0)
 Balanced membranous tension (BMT) 32 (8.2)
 Compression of the fourth ventricle (CV4) 31 (8.0)
 Sutural techniques 23 (5.9)
 Sacral rocking, release or decompression 22 (5.7)
 Spheno-basilar synchondrosis decompression 18 (4.6)
 Mobilization temporal 16 (4.1)
 Parietal and frontal lift 14 (3.6)
 Dural tube traction 9 (2.3)
 V-Spread 9 (2.3)
 Venous sinus drainage 7 (1.8)
 Eustachian tube drainage 5 (1.3)
Visceral techniques
 Lymphatic 37 (9.5)
 Organ mobilization 34 (8.7)
 Visceral fascial release 24 (6.2)
 Visceral – nonspecific 19 (4.9)
 Plexus techniques (mesenteric and coeliac plexus) 5 (1.3)
 Chapman points 4 (1.0)
 Recoil 2 (0.5)
 Viscero-somatic reflex 1 (0.3)
Osteopathic manipulative techniques (OMT) 9 (2.3)
Non-classified techniques 5 (1.3)
Body part/system targeted by the intervention
 Vertebral 139 (35.8)
  Cervical 51 (13.1)
  Lumbar 36 (9.3)
  Dorsal 26 (6.7)
  Pelvis 25 (6.4)
  All spine 1 (0.3)
 Thoracic, abdominal and pelvic visceral tissues 95 (24.4)
  Cardiorespiratory 33 (8.5)
  Digestive 34 (8.7)
  Urinary/gynecological 16 (4.1)
  Lymphatic 12 (3.1)
 Musculoskeletal other than vertebral 74 (19.0)
  Upper body 27 (6.9)
  Lower body 30 (7.7)
  Not specified or general 17 (4.4)
 Cranium or craniosacral 62 (15.9)
 Cannot assess 13 (3.3)
 Stress and mental health 6 (1.5)
  1. aNumber of studies using this technique, many techniques might be used in a same study