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Table 4 subgroup analysis

From: The effect of apple cider vinegar on lipid profiles and glycemic parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

Variables Subgroup analysis based on Number of trials Mean difference (95%CI) Within study heterogeneity Between study heterogeneity
TG Participants condition Type 2 diabetes 5 −22.46 (−40.27, −4.65) 0% 0.001
Other condition 4 −40.86 (−93.61, 11.88) 97%
Amount of apple vinegar > 15 mL/day 5 − 47.59 (−101.58, 6.67) 96% < 0.001
≤ 15 mL/day 4 −21.91 (−35.23, −8.60) 0%
Duration >  8 weeks 4 −48.22 (−92.83, − 3.60) 96% < 0.001
≤ 8 weeks 5 −9.51 (− 33.63, 14.60) 32%
TC Participants condition Type 2 diabetes 5 −11.51 (− 18.16, −4.86) 0% 0.01
Other condition 4 −3.21 (−8.81, 2.40) 47%
Amount of apple vinegar > 15 mL/day 5 −4.00 (−10.19, 2.19) 46% 0.03
≤ 15 mL/day 4 −10.22 (− 16.46, −3.98) 0%
Duration >  8 weeks 4 −7.61 (−14.29, −0.94) 49% 0.75
≤ 8 weeks 5 −5.71 (−14.33, 2.92) 49%
LDL-C Participants condition Type 2 diabetes 5 −5.39 (− 14.31, 3.53) 48% 0.002
Other condition 4 1.62 (−9.85, 5.85) 87%
Amount of apple vinegar > 15 mL/day 5 −0.59 (−11.73, 10.55) 85% 0.003
≤ 15 mL/day 4 −4.34 (−12.51, 3.84) 38%
Duration >  8 weeks 4 −1.41 (− 16.36, 13.55) 90% 0.02
≤ 8 weeks 5 −1.66 (−8.83, 5.51) 38%
HDL-C Participants condition Type 2 diabetes 5 0.21 (−2.17, 2.60) 34% 0.10
Other condition 4 1.73 (0.28, 3.18) 0%
Amount of apple vinegar > 15 mL/day 5 0.39 (−1.78, 2.57) 56% 0.49
≤ 15 mL/day 4 1.61 (−0.52, 3.75) 0%
Duration >  8 weeks 4 1.62 (− 0.07, 3.30) 0% 0.32
≤ 8 weeks 5 0.52 (−1.75, 2.79) 48%
FPG Participants condition Type 2 diabetes 5 −16.28 (−33.02, 0.47) 83% 0.69
Other condition 2 −3.53 (−6.70, −0.37) 0%
Amount of apple vinegar > 15 mL/day 3 −16.12 (−41.31, 9.07) 87% 0.15
≤ 15 mL/day 4 −4.10 (−8.98, 0.76) 52%
Duration >  8 weeks 3 −3.78 (− 6.90, −0.66) 0% 0.55
≤ 8 weeks 4 −17.14 (−38.15, 3.86) 86%
HbA1C Participants condition Type 2 diabetes 3 −0.77 (−1.56, 0.02) 88% 0.001
Other condition 3 −0.07 (− 0.32, 0.18) 0%
Amount of apple vinegar > 15 mL/day 3 −0.60 (−1.54, 0.33) 92% 0.13
≤ 15 mL/day 3 −0.24 (− 0.51, 0.03) 10%
Duration >  8 weeks 3 −0.72 (−1.58, 0.15) 90% 0.01
≤ 8 weeks 3 −0.14 (− 0.43, 0.15) 23%
  1. The effect size was obtained from random effect model. Abbreviations: TG triacylglycerol, TC total-cholesterol, LDL-C Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, FPG Fasting Plasma Glucose