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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: The effect of apple cider vinegar on lipid profiles and glycemic parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

First author (publication year) Country Number and gender (F/M) Study participants health condition Mean age Clinical Trial design /randomized/Blinding Duration Comparison group Amount of vinegar intake Reported outcomes
Bashiri et al. (2014) [4] Iran Number: 62
(Both gender)
Type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia Range: 25–65
Intervention:
49.47 ± 8.02
Placebo:
52.1 ± 7.87
Parallel/ Yes/No 8 weeks 20 mL/day TG
TC
HDL
LDL
Halima et al. (2017) [16] Tunisia Number: 44
(NR)
Type 2 diabetes range: 40–65
Intervention: NR
Placebo: NR
Parallel/ Yes/ Yes 1 month water 15 mL/day FPG
TG
TC
HDL
LDL
Kondo et al. (2009) [23] Japan Number: 155
(Both gender)
Obese Range:25–60
Intervention (high-dose):
43.4 ± 9.5
Intervention (low-dose):
44.7 ± 9.7
Placebo:
44.1 ± 9.6
Parallel/ Yes/ Yes 12 weeks Beverage 15 mL/day TG
TC
HDL-C
LDL-C
FPG
HbA1C
30 mL/day
Mahmoodi et al. (2013) [27] Iran Number: 60
(Both gender)
Type 2 diabetic Range:30–60 Parallel/ NR/ Yes 1 month Water 15 mL/day TG
TC
HDL-C
LDL-C
FPG
HbA1C
Panetta et al. (2013) [33] USA Number: 97
(Both gender)
NR Intervention:
57.7 ± 9.33
Placebo:
56.1 ± 12.58
Parallel/ Yes/ Yes 8 weeks Balsamic vinegar solution diluted in water 30 mL/day TG
TC
HDL-C
LDL-C
HbA1C
Khezri et al. (2018) [22] Iran Number: 44
(Both gender)
Obese and overweight Range: 27–40
Intervention:
42.5 ± 9
Placebo:
45 ± 11
Parallel/ Yes/ No 12 weeks Restricted calorie diet 30 mL/day plus restricted calorie diet. TG
TC
HDL-C
LDL-C
Ebrahimi-Mamaghani et al. (2009) [12] Iran Number: 38
(Both gender)
Type 2 diabetic Intervention:
54.6 ± 13.1
Placebo:
53.8 ± 9.0
Parallel/ Yes/ No 8 weeks 770 mL/day TG
TC
HDL-C
LDL-C
FPG
Mohammadpourhodki et al. (2019) [28] Iran Number: 76
(Both gender)
Type 2 diabetes Range: 18–65
Intervention:
49.2 ± 4.3
Placebo:
49.2 ± 4.3
Parallel/ Yes/No 8 weeks Water 20 mL/day FPG
HbA1C
Kausar et al. (2019) [20] Pakistan Number: 110 (Both gender) Type 2 diabetes Range: 30–60
Intervention:
51.16 ± 7.91
Placebo:
50.49 ± 7.78
Parallel/ Yes/Yes 3 month Water with artificial flavor 15 mL/day TG
TC
HDL-C
LDL-C
FPG
HbA1C
  1. Abbreviations: TG triacylglycerol, TC total-cholesterol, LDL-C Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, FPG Fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C hemoglobin A1C, NR Not Reported