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Table 3 Anti-inflammatory activity by inhibitory effects on NO, TNF-α and IL-6 production in RAW264.7 cells of the Mahanintangtong formula and its constituent herbs (n = 3)

From: Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Mahanintangtong and its constituent herbs, a formula used in Thai traditional medicine for treating pharyngitis

Plant name Extracts type IC50 ± SEM (μg/ml) Cytotoxic activity
NO TNF-α IL-6 % Survival (conc. 100 μg/mL)
Entada rheedii (carbonized) Ethanol > 100 > 100 > 100 79.74 ± 3.45
Water > 100 > 100 > 100 73.06 ± 2.83
Spondias pinnata (carbonized) Ethanol > 100 > 100 > 100 102.65 ± 4.72
Water > 100 > 100 > 100 88.23 ± 0.78
Sapindus rarak (carbonized) Ethanol 66.78 ± 1.38 > 100 > 100 71.86 ± 3.09 (conc. 70 μg/mL)
Water > 100 > 100 > 100 95.58 ± 6.81
Calamus caesius (carbonized) Ethanol > 100 > 100 > 100 93.97 ± 3.99
Water > 100 > 100 > 100 107.91 ± 6.05
Tectona grandis (carbonized) Ethanol 52.47 ± 3.58 21.26 ± 0.40 49.38 ± 1.44 97.57 ± 5.36
Water > 100 > 100 > 100 97.64 ± 1.88
Dracaena loureiroi Ethanol 9.42 ± 1.81 55.27 ± 5.47 12.02 ± 0.30 92.49 ± 1.39
Water > 100 > 100 > 100 98.54 ± 0.92
Myristica fragrans Ethanol 35.78 ± 2.22 14.03 ± 2.12 55.26 ± 4.50 96.14 ± 1.68 (conc. 50 μg/mL)
Water > 100 > 100 > 100 97.97 ± 0.20
Pogostemon cablin Ethanol > 100 10.68 ± 0.02 17.37 ± 0.78 95.45 ± 2.80
Water > 100 > 100 > 100 94.86 ± 3.43
Tiliacora triandra Ethanol > 100 82.22 ± 3.89 > 100 96.06 ± 23.11
Water > 100 > 100 > 100 92.05 ± 5.54
Chinese ink (Inkstick) Ethanol > 100 N/A N/A N/A
Water > 100 > 100 > 100 90.15 ± 6.62
Monetaria moneta (Money cowry) Ethanol > 100 N/A N/A N/A
Water > 100 > 100 > 100 93.98 ± 2.09
Mahanintangtong formula Ethanol 28.03 ± 0.64 33.09 ± 0.22 17.20 ± 0.65 88.85 ± 0.56
Water > 100 > 100 > 100 98.56 ± 0.74
Andrographolide 1.797 ± 0.41 5.08 ± 3.48 9.10 ± 0.61 91.58 ± 2.87
  1. Means of three measurements ± SEM (n = 3). % Survival was tested at 100, 70 or 50 μg/mL after 24 h incubation in RAW 264.7 cells