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Table 2 Antimicrobial activity against five microorganisms of Mahanintangtong formula and its constituent herbs (n = 3)

From: Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Mahanintangtong and its constituent herbs, a formula used in Thai traditional medicine for treating pharyngitis

Plant name Extracts type Diameter of inhibition zone (mm.)*, MIC (μg/mL)**, MBC (μg/mL)***
S. pyogenes S. aureus MRSA P. aeruginosa C. albicans
Entada rheedii (carbonized) Ethanol 11.00±0.00*,
0.039**,
0.039***
11.33±0.58*,
0.625**,
0.625***
11.21±1.73*,
5**,
5***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Water 0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
1.25**,
1.25***
0*,
0.625**,
2.5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Spondias pinnata (carbonized) Ethanol 12.67±2.52,
0.039,
0.039***
11.33±0.58,
0.625,
0.625***
12.00±0.00,
0.625,
0.625***
8.33±0.58,
>5,
>5***
0,
>5,
>5***
Water 0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
5**,
>5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Sapindus rarak (carbonized) Ethanol 10.33±1.52*,
0.039**,
0.039***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Water 0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
1.25**,
1.25***
0*,
1.25**,
2.5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Calamus caesius (carbonized) Ethanol 0*,
0.3125**,
0.625***
0*,
2.5**,
2.5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
0.625**,
2.5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Water 0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
2.5**,
2.5***
0*,
5**,
>5***
0*,
5**,
>5***
0*,
>5***,
>5***
Tectona grandis (carbonized) Ethanol 13.33±0.58*,
0.078**,
0.078***
13.00+0.00*,
0.625**,
1.25***
14.33±0.58*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
>5**,
5***
Water 0*,
>5**,
>5***
8.00±0.00*,
0.625**,
0.625***
10.33±1.53*,
2.5**,
2.5***
0*,
2.5**,
2.5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Dracaena loureiroi Ethanol 12.33±0.58*,
0.156**,
0.156***
11.00±0.00*,
0.625**,
0.625***
10.33±0.58*, 0.3125**,
0.625***
0*,
1.25**,
>5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Water 0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
5**,
>5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Myristica fragrans Ethanol 10.33±1.15*,
0.625**,
0.156***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
0.625**,
>5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Water 0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
1.25**,
>5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Pogostemon cablin Ethanol 10.33±1.15*,
0.039**,
0.039***
10.33±2.52*,
0.625**,
0.625***
11.67±1.53*,
5**,
5***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Water 0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
8.33±1.53*,
2.5**,
2.5***
0*,
1.25**,
1.25***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Tiliacora triandra Ethanol 8.33±0.58*,
0.078**,
0.078***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
8±0.00*,
5**,
5***
7±0.00*,
5**,
>5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Water 0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
1.25**,
2.5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Chinese ink (Inkstick) Ethanol N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Water 0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
5**,
>5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Monetaria moneta (Money cowry) Ethanol N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Water 0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
2.5**,
>5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Mahanintangtong formula Ethanol 10±0.00*,
0.078**,
>5***
10±0.00*,
0.625**,
0.625***
10±0.00*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Water 0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
0.625**,
0.625***
0*,
0.625**,
2.5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
0*,
>5**,
>5***
Amoxicillin NT 35.00±0.00*,
0.016**,
0.0256***
NT NT NT NT
Ampicillin NT NT 43.00±0.00*,
0.25**,
1.56***
NT NT NT
Gentamicin NT NT 15.00±0.00*,
0.195**,
0.195***
10.00±0.00*,
>200**,
>200***
12.00±0.00*,
0.195**,
0.39***
NT
Vancomycin NT 15.00±0.00*,
0.39**,
0.39***
45.00±0.00*,
0.003**,
1.92***
16.00±0.00*,
0.78**,
1.56***
NT NT
  1. Means of three measurements + SEM (n = 3). Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Gentamicin and Vancomycin were tested at 10 μg/disc. NT Not Test, N/A Not Applicab