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Table 7 Logistic Regression – Outcome – TCM user vs nonuser

From: Traditional and complementary medicine use among chronic haemodialysis patients: a nationwide cross-sectional study

Variables   Crude B Crude OR (95% CI) p-value
Age (numerical)   - 0.02 0.98 (0.96, 1.00) 0.056
Age (categorical) < 20 −20.22
  21–30 −20.55
  31–40 −20.14
  41–50 −20.54
  51–60 −20.89
  > 60 −20.22
Gender Male 0 1  
  Female - 0.14 0.87 (0.55, 1.38) 0.557
Ethnicity Malay 0 1  
  Chinese - 0.45 0.64 (0.37, 1.11) 0.113
  Indian 0.90 2.47 (0.81, 7.49) 0.111
  Others - 0.66 0.52 (0.03, 8.41) 0.645
Household Income < RM 3000 (<USD 700) 0 1  
  RM 3000 – 4999
(USD 700 – USD 1199)
0.085 1.09 (0.57, 2.08) 0.797
  RM 5000 – 9999
(USD 1200 – USD 2399)
0.350 1.42 (0.67, 3.01) 0.360
  RM 10,000 – 15,000
(USD 2400 – USD 3599)
0.369 1.45 (0.27, 7.61) 0.664
  > RM 15,000
(>USD 3600)
0.145 1.16 (0.10, 12.94) 0.906
Marital Status Single 0 1  
  Married - 0.336 0.71 (0.29, 1.77) 0.468
  Widowed - 0.520 0.60 (0.21, 1.73) 0.339
Education Status None 0 1  
  Primary School − 1.230 0.29 (0.03, 2.80) 0.286
  Secondary School −1.020 0.36 (0.04, 3.14) 0.355
  College / University −.990 0.37 (0.04, 3.39) 0.380
  Professional 19.593
Employment Status Employed 0 1  
  Self-employed - 0.053 0.99 (0.32, 2.80) 0.923
  Unemployed - 0.698 0.50 (0.23, 1.08) 0.077
  Pensioner - 0.159 0.85 (0.35, 2.09) 0.728
  Student 20.138
Variables   Crude B Crude OR (95% CI) p-value
Comorbid No 0 1  
  Yes - 0.59 0.56 (0.22, 1.44) 0.226
Comorbid –
Diabetes mellitus
No 0 1  
Yes - 0.12 0.89 (0.56, 1.43) 0.630
Comorbid –
Hypertension
No 0 1  
Yes - 0.25 0.78 (0.47, 1.30) 0.332
Comorbid –
Gouty arthritis
No 0 1  
Yes - 0.35 0.70 (0.32, 1.54) 0.381
Comorbid –
Asthma/ lung disease
No 0 1  
Yes 0.09 1.09 (0.10, 12.15) 0.944
Comorbid –
Heart disease
No 0 1  
Yes - 0.28 0.76 (0.37, 1.56) 0.447
Comorbid –
Other renal disease
No 0 1  
Yes - 0.07 0.93 (0.36, 2.43) 0.882
Comorbid –
Autoimmune disease
No 0 1  
Yes 0.315 1.37 (0.26, 7.18) 0.709
Comorbid –
Dyslipidaemia
No 0 1  
Yes 0.463 1.59 (0.79, 3.21) 0.197
Dialysis Duration (categorical) 2–3 0 1  
4–5 0.34 1.40 (0.81, 2.42) 0.231
6–7 <  0.01 1.00 (0.49, 2.06) 0.993
8–9 - 0.39 0.68 (0.25, 1.85) 0.448
>  10 0.47 1.61 (0.60, 4.33) 0.350
Dialysis Duration (numerical)   0.019 1.02 (0.94, 1.11) 0.654
Location (Region)* North Peninsular 0 1  
  East Peninsular - 0.108 0.90 (0.40, 2.00) 0.790
  South Peninsular - 0.725 0.49 (2.5, 0.96) 0.038
  Central Peninsular 0.531 1.70 (0.76, 3.79) 0.194
  East Malaysia - 0.738 0.48 (0.20, 1.15( 0.101
  1. Note:
  2. No variable that have significant association with TCM user (or non-user)
  3. Some cells have small size (count < 5), making crude B coefficient to be very large (either < − 5 or > 5), and cannot be interpreted