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Table 2 Comorbidities and causes of ESKD (n = 329)

From: Traditional and complementary medicine use among chronic haemodialysis patients: a nationwide cross-sectional study

Variables n (%)
Comorbiditiesa
 None 25 (7.6)
 Diabetes mellitus 207 (62.9)
 Hypertension 236 (71.7)
 Gouty arthritis 28 (8.5)
 Asthma/lung disease 3 (0.9)
 Heart disease 34 (10.3)
 Other renal disease (glomerulonephritis/polycystic kidney disease/renal calculi, etc.) 19 (5.8)
 Autoimmune disease (systemic lupus erythematosus/rheumatoid arthritis, etc.) 7 (2.3)
 Dyslipidaemia 45 (13.7)
 Other 7 (2.3)
ESKD Cause
 Diabetes mellitus 174 (52.9)
 Hypertension 46 (14.0)
 Polycystic kidney disease 7 (2.1)
 Obstructive uropathy 5 (1.5)
 Glomerulonephritis 16 (4.9)
 Drug induced, e.g., NSAID 40 (12.2)
 Traditional and complementary medicine 5 (1.5)
 Unknown 36 (10.9)
  1. aSome respondents have multiple comorbidities.