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Table 3 Comparison of histological features of different study groups

From: Anti-osteoarthritis potential of peppermint and rosemary essential oils in a nanoemulsion form: behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological evidence

Groups Pathological finding
Control (CO) No cartilage degeneration; intact surface
Osteoarthritis (OA) Severe cartilage degeneration (greater than 75% affected); formation of granulation tissue with neo vascularization; edema; infiltration of mononuclear leucocytes
Osteoarthritis received gel contained the nanoemulsion (NG) Mild cartilage degeneration (11–25%); surface fibrillation; a few scattered lymphocytes; a very mild edema
Osteoarthritis received the nanoemulsion solution (NS) Moderate cartilage degeneration (26–50%); moderate fibrillation; infiltration of mononuclear leucocytes
Osteoarthritis received gel contained Mentha and Rosemary essential oils (EG) Marked cartilage degeneration (51–75%); neo vascularization; edema; infiltration of mononuclear leucocytes
Osteoarthritis received gel contained 1% diclofenac sodium (DG) Mild cartilage degeneration (11–25%); surface fibrillation; a few scattered lymphocytes
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