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Table 2 Characteristics of the 11 studies included in the review

From: Complementary and alternative medicine - practice, attitudes, and knowledge among healthcare professionals in New Zealand: an integrative review

Author (Year) Method Target population Investigated CAM therapies Sample size/RRc Sampling method Main age group (%) Ethnicity (NZ European %) Male (%) Themed Study quality
I II III
Hadley (1988) [12] Survey GPs Seven CAM therapiesa 226/77% Census 30-50 yr (58%) NR 75 × Moderate
Marshall (1990) [13] Survey GPs NS 370/67.3% Simple random Mean = 44 yr 84.7 82.6 Low
Taylor (2003) [3] Survey GPs NS 30/83.3% Census NR NR NR Moderate
Lawler (2004) [8] Survey GPs Massage and other CAM 200/43% Simple random Mean = 46.1 yr 73 57 Moderate
Poynton (2006) [14] Survey GPs Thirteen CAM therapiesb 500/60% Simple random Mean = 50.3 yr 72 60 × Moderate
Harding (2009) [32] Survey Midwives NS 171/44.6% Systematic random NR NR NR × Moderate
Bocock (2011) [15] Survey GPs & specialists NS 395/59% Census 41-50 yr (36%) 88 66 Low
Upsdell (2011) [33] Interview GPs NS 12 Stratified NR NR NR × Moderate
Lo (2012) [9] Focus group Plunket nurses NS 5 Convenience 20-40 yr (100%) 60 0 × High
Barnes (2018) [34] Interview Pharmacists NS 27 Purposive & convenience 40-49 yr (44.4%) NR 51.9 × High
McDowell (2019) [35] Survey Physios Acupuncture 124/NR Census 30-40 yr (38.7%) NR 21 Moderate
  1. Abbreviations: NS not specified, GPs general practitioners, CAM complementary and alternative medicine, NZ New Zealand, physios physiotherapists, RR response rate
  2. a The specified seven therapies were hypnosis, acupuncture, osteopathy, chiropractic, naturopathy, homeopathy and spiritual healing
  3. b The specified thirteen therapies were acupuncture, aromatherapy, chiropractic, herbal medicines, homeopathy, hypnosis, naturopathy, osteopathy, reflexology, spiritual healing, traditional Chinese Medicine, traditional Māori Medicine, traditional Pacific Island Medicine
  4. c RR applied to survey studies only
  5. d I = prevalence of practice, use and referral for CAM; II = attitudes and views toward CAM, III = knowledge and education regarding CAM
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