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Table 3 Non-plant resources used as cosmeceuticals in Vhembe district municipality, Limpopo province, South Africa

From: Natural resources used as folk cosmeceuticals among rural communities in Vhembe district municipality, Limpopo province, South Africa

Local/common name(s)Type of natural resourceaFUse-valuebRFCMethod(s) of preparation and administrationcLocation(s)
Cattle fatCattle fat90.0140.12The milk is fermented and boiled to make oil which is applied as a skin moisturiser.Tshakuma
Luvhimbi
Khakhanwa
Tshamutilikwa
Folovhodwe
Shigalo
Cow dungManure30.0380.04The moist manure is applied on the feet and washed with water to remove cracks. Manure is also mixed with menstruation blood to remove silver stripes.Tshakuma
Cow milkMilk50.0140.07The milk is cooked to make a cream and applied topically as a skin moisturiser.Tshakuma
Khakhanwa
GoatManure10.0140.01The manure is burned and applied for the removal of rashKhakhanwa
Green algae of river (Hololo)Fungi30.0380.04Hololo is burned and mixed with leaves of musuma to treat ringworms.
The algae are burned and applied on wounds for healing
Luvhimbi
KhediSoil10.0140.01Soil particles are ground to a fine powder and applied on the face for enhancing the complexionTshakuma
Lizard manureManure10.0140.01The manure is crushed and applied directly to a wound for healing.Tshamutilikwa
Luvhundi soilSoil170.0420.23The soil is mixed with oil or water and applied on the feet to remove cracks.
It is also applied as a sun protector.
Soil is mixed with oil to remove rash.
Tshakuma
Luvhimbi
Khakhanwa
Folovhodwe
Shigalo
Mafhura tharu/ntlharoPython fat130.0420.18Python fat is extracted by frying the python and the oil is applied on burned skin and wounds for healing and removal of scars.Tshakuma
Tshamutilikwa Khakhanwa
Folovhodwe
Marumbuda
White/green substance on stones usually after heavy rain
Fungi10.0420.01Applied to the skin for the removal of stretchmarks, ringworms and rash.Tshakuma
Folovhodwe
Mtaba (sand)Soil10.0140.01The soil is rubbed on the teeth for cleansing.Tshakuma
Munyaka soilYellow and brown soil20.0140.03The soil is applied directly to the face as a make-up foundation.Khakhanwa
Munyaka stoneStone20.0140.01The stone is crushed to a fine powder and mixed with water to soften the skin.Luvhimbi
Ngulube dakaOil/fat10.0140.01Pig fat is applied as skin moisturizer.Tshakuma
Nguluvhe/HonjePig fat500.0560.70The oil is extracted by cooking and used as a skin moisturiser and to remove cracks. Also used as soap to soften and protect the skin.Tshakuma
Tshamutilikwa
Luvhimbi
Khakhanwa
Shigalo
Folovhodwe
Salt water/sea waterWater20.0380.03Salt and seawater are used to remove rash and ringworms.Shigalo
Sandy SoilSoil110.0140.15The sandy soil is rubbed on the teeth for cleansing.
It is mixed with water and rubbed on the skin for the removal of dirt
Tshakuma
Luvhimbi
Folovhodwe
Shigalo
StoneStone180.0380.25The stone is used to scrub the feet to remove cracks and dirt removal.Tshakuma
Luvhimbi
Khakhanwa
Folovhodwe
Shigalo
TshinyaiSoot30.0380.04Soot is mixed with oil and applied on the skin to remove rash and stretchmark.Tshakuma
Luvhimbi
Tshamutilikwa
Shigalo
UrineUrine30.0140.04The urine is applied to burned skin for healing.Tshakuma
Shigalo
White mountain stoneStone50.0380.07The stone is ground into powder form and rubbed on the teeth for cleaning and whitening.Tshakuma
Shigalo
Wood ashes/coalAshes110.0560.15The wood coal is ground and rubbed on the teeth for cleansing. It is also applied around the eyes as make-up.
The wood coal is ground and mixed with oil to dye and soften the hair.
Tshakuma
Luvhimbi
Folovhodwe
Shigalo
  1. aF Frequency, bRFC Relative frequency citation, cLocation: Luvhimbi = Masikhwa (on the map in Fig. 1)