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Table 2 Plants used as folk cosmeceuticals among rural communities in Vhembe district municipality, Limpopo province, South Africa

From: Natural resources used as folk cosmeceuticals among rural communities in Vhembe district municipality, Limpopo province, South Africa

Scientific name
(Voucher number)
aCommon name(s)FamilyPart(s) usedbFUse-valuecRFCMethod of preparation and administrationLife-formdLocation
Acmella caulirhiza Delile
Syn: Eclipta filicaulis Schumach. & Thonn.
(MVS 007)
Tshishengeraphofu (V)Compositae/
Asteraceae
Leaves20.0420.03The leaves are crushed and mixed with water to wash wounds to enhance healing.
The crushed leaves are infused in water to wash sores.
The powder of the crushed leaves is mixed with saliva and applied topically for wound healing
HerbLVB
TKM
Albizia harveyi E.Fourn.
(MVS 019)
Molela (X)
paperbark false-thorn (E)
Leguminosae/
Fabaceae
Roots10.0140.01The roots are burned and applied to remove rashTreeSGL
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.
Syn: Aloe barbadensis Mill.
(MVS 031)
Mhangani (X)/ Tshikopa (V)
Aloe (E)
XanthorrhoeaceaeLeaves50.0840.07The liquid from the leaves is applied topically to remove ringworms, moisturize the skin, remove stretch marks, rash and to heal burned skin and woundHerbLVB
TMTL
TKM
FLVD
SGL
Annona senegalensis Pers.
(MVS 005)
Muembe (V)
African Custard-apple (E)
AnnonaceaeTwigs110.0140.15The twig is crushed and used as a toothbrush to clean the teethShrubTKM
LVB
Bauhinia thonningii Schum.
Syn: Piliostigma thonningii (Schum.) Milne-Redh
(MVS 018)
Xidengana/
denga (X)
camel’s foot (E)
Leguminosae/
Fabaceae
Fruit50.0700.07The fruit is burned and mixed with oil which is applied on ringworms, sores and for treating skin irritation.
The liquid from fruit applied to remove pimples and wounds
ShrubSGL
Bidens pilosa L.
(MVS 047)
Mushidzhi (V)
Black jack (E)
Compositae/
Asteraceae
Leaves
Fruit
10.0380.01The leaves are crushed and the liquid is applied on wounds.
The fruit juice is mixed with ashes to remove rash
HerbLVB
Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck
(MVS 002)
Tshikavhave (V)
Lemon (E)
RutaceaeFruit30.0560.04Juice from the fruit is applied on the skin for moisturizing, removing wrinkles, scars and pimplesTreeTKM
FLVD
SGL
Citrus reticulata Blanco
(MVS 050)
Swiri (V)
Orange (E)
RutaceaeFruit20.0380.03The fruit juice is applied on the skin to clean and soften itTreeLVB
Combretum imberbe Wawra
(MVS 038)
Mondzo (X)
Leadwood (E)
CombretaceaeBark10.0140.01The bark is ground and mixed with water to remove sores by bathingTreeSGL
Cussonia spicata Thunb
(MVS 040)
Musenzhe (V)
Cabbage tree (E)
AraliaceaeLeaves10.0140.01The leaves are crushed and applied as a paste on ringwormsTreeTKM
Dicerocaryum zanguebarium (Lour.) Merr.
(MVS 022)
Dinda (X) /museto (V)
Boot protectors (E)
PedaliaceaeLeaves610.0420.85The leaves are mixed with water for bathing; also relaxes hair and removes dandruffHerbTKM
TMTK
LVB
KKN
FLVD
SGL
Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn.
Syn: Acacia cinerea (L.) Spreng.
(MVS 011)
Murenzhe (V)
Sickle bush (E)
Leguminosae/
Fabaceae
Fruit
Bark
20.0420.03The fruit is burned and the ashes applied for wound healing.
The bark is crushed and mixed with oil to remove ringworms.
The bark is boiled and water used to wash the wound
ShrubTKM
KKN
Diospyros lycioides Desf.
(MVS 025)
Muthala (V)
Quilted Bluebush (E)
EbenaceaeTwigs
Fruit
30.0380.04The twig is crushed to clean the teeth.
The fruit is juice is mixed with water to wash wounds
ShrubTKM
LVB
Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A. DC.
(MVS 017)
Ntoma (X) Musuma (V)
Jackal berry (E)
EbenaceaeFruit
Leaves
Twigs
50.0420.07Liquid from the leaves and fruit are applied on skin for eradicating ringworms.
The twig is crushed to clean the teeth
TreeTMTK
TKM
KKN
SGL
Diospyros natalensis (Harv.) Brenan
(MVS 043)
Xintomatomane (X)
Acorn Jackal-berry (E)
EbenaceaeTwigs30.0140.04The tip of twig is crushed and used to clean the teethTreeSGL
Dombeya rotundifolia (Hochst.) Planch
(MVS 036)
Tshiluvhari (V)
Wild Pear/plum (E)
MalvaceaeLeaves10.0380.01The leaves are crushed and mixed with water to wash and dye hairTreeKKN
Euclea divinorum Hiern
(MVS 013)
Nhlangula (X) /mutangule (V)
Magic guarri (E)
EbenaceaeLeaves70.0840.10The crushed leaves are mixed with water or the leaves are boiled and used for bathing to remove skin irritation, ringworms, rash, pimples, chickenpoxShrubLVB
KKN
TKM
SGL
Eugenia capensis subsp. natalitia (Sond.) F.White
Syn: Eugenia natalitia Sond
(MVS 001)
Tshitanzwa-tanzwane (V)
Forest Myrtle (E)
MyrtaceaeRoots10.0140.01The roots are ground and soaked in water to wash sores.ShrubTMTK
Gardenia volkensii K. Schum.
(MVS 020)
Tshiralala (V)
bushveld gardenia (E)
RubiaceaeFlowers10.0140.01The flower is mixed with water to bathe for controlling odourTreeFLVD
Helinus integrifolius (Lam.) Kuntze
(MVS 032)
Mpupungwa/ mugumwa (V)
Soap Bush/Plant (E)
RhamnaceaeLeaves130.0380.18The leaves are mixed with water to make foam to bathe and wash hair.ShrubTKM
TMTK
Heteromorpha arborescens (Spreng.) Cham. & Schltdl.
(MVS 008)
Muthathavhanna (V)
Parsley tree (E)
ApiaceaeLeaves10.0140.01The leaves are squashed and applied as a paste for healing burned skinTreeLVB
Hyperacanthus amoenus (Sims) Bridson
(MVS 049)
Murombe (V)
Spiny-gardenia (E)
RubiaceaeFruit10.0140.01The fruit called thomba liquid, it is applied on the skin for removing pimplesShrubTKM
Indigofera arrecta Hochst. A. Rich
(MVS 034)
Muswiswa (V)
Java indigo (E)
Leguminosae/
Fabaceae
Twigs
Leaves
20.0420.03The twig is crushed and used to clean the teeth.
The tip of the twig is crushed and is dipped in ashes to clean teeth
The leaves are infused in water for bathing
HerbTKM
Jatropha curcas L.
Syn: Castiglionia lobata Ruiz & Pav.
(MVS 004)
Mupfure donga (V)
Barbados nut
Bubblebush (E)
EuphorbiaceaeStem
Leaves
Roots
60.0380.08Liquid from crushed leaves and stems are applied to moisturize the skin.
The roots are ground and soaked in water to wash wounds
ShrubTMTK
TKM
Jatropha zeyheri Sond.
Syn: Jatropha brachyadenia Pax & K.Hoffm.
(MVS 052)
Xidemeja (X)EuphorbiaceaeLeaves10.0140.01The leaves are squashed and applied as a paste for wound healingHerbSGL
Lannea schweinfurthii var. stuhlmannii (Engl.) Kokwaro
Syn: Lannea stuhlmannii Engl.
(MVS 039)
Ndivata (X)
False marula (E)
AnacardiaceaeLeaves10.0140.01The leaves are crushed and smeared on wounds for healingTreeSGL
Lippia javanica (Burm. f.) Spreng
(MVS 041)
Musudzungwane (V)
Fever tea (E)
VerbenaceaeLeaves40.0380.05The leaves are rubbed on the skin for the treatment of rash.
The leaves are crushed and rubbed with oil on the body for the treatment of rash.
ShrubTKM
TMTK
KKN
Musa acuminata Colla
(MVS 028)
Muova (V)
Banana (E)
MusaceaeFlowers
Leaves
40.0380.05Liquid from leaves and flower are applied for treating wounds and burned skinTreeTKM
LVB
Obetia tenax Friis
Syn: Urera tenax N.E. Br.
(MVS 006)
Thanga (V)
Rock tree (E)
UrticaceaeSeeds20.0140.03The seeds are ground to moisturize the skinTreeTMTK
FLVD
Peltophorum africanum Sond.
(MVS 012)
Musese (V)
African Black Wattle (E)
Leguminosae/
Fabaceae
Bark10.0140.01The bark is boiled and drunk to heal mouth soresTreeTMTK
Persea americana Mill.
(MVS 052)
Afukhada (V)
Avocado (E)
LauraceaeSeeds
Fruit
60.0420.08The seeds are crushed and used as face-wash to remove blackheads on the skin.
The fruit is rubbed on the skin to moisturize and soften it
TreeTKM
KKN
FLVD
Phragmites mauritianus Kunth
(MVS 014)
Lutanga (V)
Lowveld Reed (E)
PoaceaeThorns
whole plant
30.0380.04The thorn is used to prickle and remove moles.
The whole plant is burned and the ashes applied for removal of stretch marks.
GrassTMTK
TKM
Pouzolzia mixta Solms
Syn: Pouzolzia huillensis Hiern
(MVS 009)
Muthanzwa (V)
Snuggle-leaf (E)
UrticaceaeRoots10.0140.01The roots are crushed to powder and applied on a wound to heal it.ShrubTMTK
Ricinus communis L.
(MVS 016)
Nhlampfurha (X) mupfure (V)
Castor oil plant
EuphorbiaceaeSeeds200.0420.28Oil from the fried seeds are used for moisturizing the skin and hairShrubTKM
TMTK
LVB
FLVD
SGL
Salacia rehmannii Schinz.
(MVS 026)
Phathatsimima (V)CelastraceaeRoots10.0140.01The roots are ground and mixed with water to wash soresShrubTMTK
Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst.
(MVS 033)
Murula (V)
Marula (E)
AnacardiaceaeStem
Seeds
20.0420.03The stem is burned and applied to wounds.
The seeds are ground and mixed with water till it becomes soft to moisturize the skin and as anti-aging
TreeLVB
FLVD
Searsia lancea (L.f.) F.A.Barkley
(MVS 045)
Mushakaladzane (V)
Karee (E)
AnacardiaceaeLeaves50.0420.07The leaves are crushed and mixed with water to clean the skin and to treat rashes.
The leaves are boiled in water to bathe to remove pimples
TreeLVB
KKN
FLVD
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link
Syn: Cassia occidentalis L.
(MVS 037)
Nembenembe (X) Munembenembe (V)
Coffee senna (E)
Leguminosae/
Fabaceae
Leaves20.0380.03The leaves are crushed and made as a paste to apply on burned skin and for wound healingShrubLVB
SGL
Setaria acromelaena (Hochst.) T.Durand & Schinz
(MVS 046)
Xihovane (X)
Bristle Grass (E)
PoaceaeStem10.0140.01The stem is crushed and infused with water to remove sores.GrassSGL
Sida cordifolia L.
(MVS
Mutudo (V)
Flannel Weed (E)
MalvaceaeRoots10.0140.01The roots are burned and the ashes are applied for wound healingHerbTKM
TMTK
Solanum panduraeforme Dunal
(MVS 035)
Mututulwa (V)
Apple of Sodom (E)
SolanaceaeFruit20.0420.03The fruit is burned and applied after incision on ringworms.
The liquid is applied to heal a wound and chickenpox.
HerbTKM
Solanum tuberosum L.
(MVS 048)
Potato (E)SolanaceaeTuber10.0140.01The peels of potatoes are rubbed on rash for their removalHerbSGL
Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze
(MVS 044)
Vhuri (V)
Red witchweed (E)
OrobanchaceaeWhole plant20.0140.03The plant is burned and applied for healing of a wound.HerbTMTK
Strychnos spinosa Lam.
(MVS 023)
Muramba (V)
Spiny monkey orange
LoganiaceaeFruit10.0140.01Fruit juice is applied on ringworms for their removalTreeLVB
FLVD
Synadenium cupulare (Boiss.) L.C. Wheeler
(MVS 042)
Muswoswo (V) Crying Tree (E)EuphorbiaceaeStem20.0140.03Liquid from the cut stem is applied on the skin for the removal of molesShrubTKM
Tabernaemontana elegans Stapf
(MVS 029)
Muhatu (V)
Toad tree (E)
ApocynaceaeStem
Roots
20.0380.03Liquid from the cut stem is applied to the skin for the removal of ringworms.
The roots are burned, ground and applied on the skin for the removal of ringworms
ShrubLVB
Terminalia sericea Burch,
ex DC
(MVS 015)
Nkonono (X) mususu (E)
silver cluster-leaf (E)
CombretaceaeRoots
Leaves
30.0380.04The roots are burned and applied on the skin for the removal of pimples.
The leaves are crushed and mixed with oil to moisturize the skin
TreeTMTK
SGL
Trichilia emetica Vahl
(MVS 027)
Nkuhlu (X)
Natal mahogany (E)
MeliaceaeSeeds10.0140.01The seeds are ground to produce oil for moisturizing the skinTreeSGL
Unidentified plant species
(MVS 003)
Grass (E)PoaceaeWhole plant40.0380.05The grass is burned and the ashes are applied for healing of sores and wounds.GrassSGL
Vernonia fastigiata Oliv. & Hiern
(MVS 021)
Tanyi (V)
Narrow-leaved Vernonia (E)
Compositae/
Asteraceae
Leaves20.0140.03The leaves are crushed and smoothly rubbed on the skin for the removal of wound scars.HerbTMTK
Zanthoxylum davyi Waterm.
(MVS 024)
Munungu (V)
Fever Tree Knobwood (E)
RutaceaeRoots
Leaves
Stem
40.0380.05The roots are ground and the leaves crushed and applied for wound healing.
The crushed stem is used to wash the teeth.
TreeTMTK
LVB
Zea mays L.
(MVS 48)
Mufhumbu ha mavhele (V)
Maize (E)
PoaceaeFruit120.0380.16Cob is ground and mixed with water and used for bathing in order to treat rash.
Cob is ground and applied directly to pimples.
GrassTKM
LVB
TMTK
KKN
  1. aCommon name: V = Venda, E = English, X = Xitsonga; bF = Frequency; cRFC = Relative frequency citation
  2. dLocation: TKM Tshakuma, TMTK Tshamutilikwa, LVB Luvhimbi (Masikhwa), SGL Shigalo, KKN Khakhanwa, FLVD Folovhodwe