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Table 1 Patient characteristics of the two groups

From: Clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma complicated with aristolochic acid nephropathy after radical nephroureterectomy

Variables AAN(n = 42) NON-AAN(n = 238) P Value
Age (year) 68.0 (52–81) 67.2 (32–79) 0.62
Gender, n (%)    < 0.001
 Male 11 (26.2) 142 (59.7)  
 Female 31 (73.8) 96 (40.3)  
End-stage renal disease    < 0.001
 Yes 14 (33.3) 11 (4.6)  
 No 28 (66.7) 227 (95.4)  
Tumor location, n (%)    0.89
 Renal pelvis 23 (54.7) 112 (62.7)  
 Ureter 19 (45.3) 126 (37.3)  
 Upper 4 (23.1) 36 (29.0)  
 Middle 9 (46.2) 60 (47.4)  
 Lower 6 (30.7) 30 (23.6)  
Previous bladder tumor n (%)    0.40
 Yes 5 (11.9) 21 (9.3)  
 No 37 (88.1) 217 (91.7)  
Hydronephrosis    
 Yes 27 (64.3) 156 (65.5) 0.87
 No 15 (35.7) 82 (34.5)  
pT stage, n (%)    0.79
 pTa 1 (2.4) 7 (2.8)  
 pT1 19 (45.2) 109 (45.8)  
 pT2 15 (35.7) 86 (36.1)  
 pT3 4 (9.5) 26 (11.1)  
 pT4 3 (7.2) 10 (4.2)  
pN stage, n (%)    0.12
 pN0 38 (90.7) 205 (86.1)  
 pN1 4 (9.3) 33 (13.9)  
Grade, n (%)    0.11
 Low 18 (42.8) 102 (43.1)  
 High 24 (57.1) 136 (56.9)  
Surgical approach, n (%)    0.40
 Laparoscopic 36 (85.7) 212 (89.1)  
 Open 6 (14.3) 26 (10.9)  
Mean operative time (min) 142.3 ± 26.4 146.0 ± 32.5 0.31
Mean estimate blood loss (ml) 207.8 ± 78.3 194.5 ± 90.0 0.06
Complications (Clavien Grade), n (%)    0.003
 None 20 (47.6) 163 (68.5)  
 1 11 (26.2) 43 (18.1)  
 2 7 (16.7) 28 (11.8)  
 3 1 (2.4) 3 (1.3)  
 4 3 (7.1) 1 (0.4)  
 5 0 (0) 0 (0)