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Table 2 The immunomodulatory effects (expressed as fold-changes compared with untreated control) of AL extract, β-eudesmol, and atractylodin at the concentrations of 40, 20 and 10 μg/ml, on the expression levels of TNFα and IL6 in PBMCs compared with untreated control cells. Concanavalin A (Con A) alone (10 μg/ml) and dexamethasone (200 μM) were used to stimulate and inhibit (positive control) the inflammatory process in PBMCs. Data are presented as median (range) values of three independent experiments (triplicate each)

From: A randomized placebo-controlled phase I clinical trial to evaluate the immunomodulatory activities of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. in healthy Thai subjects

Treatment Fold changes
TNFα IL6
Untreated cells 1.00 1.00
Con A (10 μg/ml) 2.19 (1.99–2.23) 1.02 (0.99–1.05)
Dexamethasone (200 μm) + Con A (10 μg/ml) 0.60 (0.59–0.61)b 0.33 (0.32–0.33)b
AL (40 μg/ml) + Con A (10 μg/ml) 0.99 (0.98–1.00)b 0.01 (0.009–0.012)a
AL (20 μg/ml) + Con A (10 μg/ml) 1.65 (1.60–1.67)c 0.12 (0.11–0.12)a
AL (10 μg/ml) + Con A (10 μg/ml) 2.5 (2.49–2.51) 0.45 (0.43–0.49)b
β -eudesmol (40 μg/ml) + Con A (10 μg/ml) 2.26 (2.24–2.27) 0.35 (0.34–0.36)b
β -eudesmol (20 μg/ml) + Con A (10 μg/ml) 2.2 (2.21–2.23) 0.58 (0.56–0.58)c
β -eudesmol (10 μg/ml) + Con A (10 μg/ml) 2.45 (2.31–2.54) 0.70 (0.69–0.71)c
Atractylodin (40 μg/ml) + Con A (10 μg/ml) 3.46 (3.20–3.54) 0.77 (0.74–0.80c
Atractylodin (20 μg/ml) + Con A (10 μg/ml) 1.96 (1.91–2.11) 1.94 (1.90–2.00)d
Atractylodin (10 μg/ml) + Con A (10 μg/ml) 0.26 (0.23–0.26)a 0.11 (0.09–0.12)a
  1. a Statistically significant difference with Con A (P < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney U test)
  2. b Statistically significant difference with Con A (P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test)
  3. c Statistically significant difference with Con A (P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test)
  4. d Statistically significant difference with Con A (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U test)
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