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Table 2 The characteristics of wrist-ankle acupuncture intervention

From: Wrist-ankle acupuncture has a positive effect on cancer pain: a meta-analysis

Author, year Needle specifications; angles of needling insertion; exposed length of needle body; needle retention time; course of treatment
Shen, 2000 [19] Not reported; 15°; 1 cm; 24–72 h; 10 days/course, 2 courses
Hu, 2004 [20] 0.25 mm × 250 mm; 30°; not reported; 10–12 h; 10 days/course, 1 course
Han, 2012 [21] 0.25 mm × 250 mm; 30°; not reported; 10–12 h; 10 days/course, 1 course
Zeng, 2014 [22] 0.25 mm × 250 mm; 30°; not reported; 6 h; 1 time treatment
Dong, 2015 [23] 0.25 mm × 250 mm; 30°; 2 mm; 10 h; not reported
Wang, 2017 [24] Not reported; 30°; 1 mm; 12 h; 10 day/course, 3 courses
Dong, 2018 [25] 0.25 mm × 250 mm; 30°; 1 mm; 10–12 h; 7 days/course
Zhang, 2018 [26] 0.25 mm × 250 mm; 30°; not reported; 1–2 h; 14 days/course, 1 course
Su, 2018 [27] 0.25 mm × 250 mm; not reported; not reported; 9–12 h; 10 days/course, 1 course
Fu, 2019 [28] 0.25 mm × 250 mm; 30°; not reported; 1 h; not reported
Luan, 2019 [29] 0.3 mm × 25 mm; 30°; 2 mm; 1 h; not reported
Wu, 2019 [30] 0.2 mm × 25 mm; 20–30°; 1 mm; 12 h; 10 days/course, 1 course
Xu, 2020 [31] 0.3 mm × 25 mm; not reported; 0 mm; 2–12 h; not reported