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Table 1 Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of test items and control compounds

From: Comparative in vitro analysis of inhibition of rhinovirus and influenza virus replication by mucoactive secretolytic agents and plant extracts

Compounds/Extracts Units 50% Cytotoxic concentration in 50% Inhibitory concentration against Selectivity index against
Rhinoviruses Influenza A viruses Influenza A viruses
HeLa cells MDCK cells A2 B14 Jena/8178 HK/68 Jena/8178 HK/68
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD   
Pleconaril μM 28.75 8.06 n.d.   0.008 0.003 0.025 0.009 n.d. n.d.   
Zanamivir μM n.d. > 100a   n.d. n.d. 0.007 0.004 0.008 0.003 > 14,285 > 12,500
Bromhexine μM 51.85 9.80 51.29 9.08 n.a.   n.a.   n.a.   n.a.    
Ambroxol μM 61.24 42.03 > 100a   n.a.   n.a.   n.a.   n.a.    
N-acetylcysteine μM > 100a   > 100a   n.a.   n.a.   n.a.   n.a.    
Thyme extract % v/v > 0.5a 0.32 0.07 n.a.   n.a.   0.03 0.01 0.03 0.00 11 11
Pelargonium extract μg/ml > 100a   > 100a   n.a.   n.a.   7.80 2.55 11.67 6.03 > 13 > 9
  1. Means and standard deviation (SD) of the calculated 50% cytotoxic and the 50% inhibitory concentrations are shown
  2. n.d not determined, n.a not active up to the maximum non-cytotoxic concentration
  3. amore than 50% viability at the maximum tested concentration. Therefore, the 50% cytotoxic concentration is assumed to be higher than 100 μg/ml, 100 μM, or 0.5% v/v