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Table 1 Basic Characteristics of the Included Studies

From: Effects of qigong on systolic and diastolic blood pressure lowering: a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

Author Year Country Population Characteristic Mean Age Intervention (T) Control© Intent-ion to treat Per protocol (Qigong/ Control) Trial Duration Amount of practice Duration of Qigong Outcome
Lee et al 2003 Korea Essential hypertension T: 55.8 ± 6.3 C: 57.1 ± 7.6 Shuxin-pingxue gong Wait-list control 65 58 (29/29) 8 weeks Not mention-ed 30 min/d included the warming-up (5 minutes), the Qigong (20 min) and the cool-down exercise (5 min) Qigong may stabilize the sympathetic nervous system, improve ventilatory functions and reduce BP positively in mildly hypertensive middle-aged patients
Lee et al 2004 Korea Essential hypertension T: 52.6 ± 5.1 C: 54.3 ± 5.5 Shuxin-pingxue gong Wait-list control 46 36 (17/19) 8 weeks Twice per week 30 min/d, including warm-up (5 minutes), the qigong exercise (20 min), and cool-down exercises (5 min) Qigong has positive effects on reducing BP and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy
Cheung et al 2005 Hong Kong Essential hypertension T: 57.2 ± 9.5 C: 51.2 ± 7.4 Guolin Qigong Conventional exercise: 60 min in the morning and 15 min in the evening/d 91 76 (37/39) 16 weeks Daily 60 min in the morning and 15 min in the evening/d There is no significant difference in the effects of qigong and conventional exercise on BP in patients with mild hypertension
Ji-eun Park et al 2014 Korea Pre-hypertension and mild hypertension. 52.0 (43.0, 61.0) Qigong No interventi-on 44 40 (19/21) 8 weeks More than 2 times per week 30 min per session Qigong presented statistically significant effects compared with no treatment in decreasing BP for prehypertension and mild essential hypertension
Chen D 2016 Beijing Essential hypertension 66.3 ± 5.8 Mawangdui Daoyinshu Qigong (MDQ) No interventi-on 60 60 (30/30) 6 months Five times per week warm-up (5 min), the Qigong exercise (34 min), and a cool-down (5 min MDQ may have the potential to improve SBP, DBP, HDL-C, LDL-C, TPR, FG, serum NO, and plasma ET-1.
Xiao et al 2016 Beijing Essential hypertension 65.6 ± 7.8 Ba Duan Jin Qigong No interventi-on 48 48 (24/24) 6 months Five times per week 5-min warm-up, 30 min of Qigong exercise, and a 5-min cool-down. Ba Duan Jin Qigong exercise may have the potential to improve SBP, DBP, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, triglycerides, fasting glucose, serum NO, and plasma ET-1.
Ji-Eun Park et al 2017 Korea Pre-hypertension and mild hypertension. 54.52 ± 6.96 Dongeui Qigong No interventi-on 74 52 (25/27) 12 weeks More than five times a week Qigong class lasted 50 min,consisted of a warm-up (15 min),main qigong treatment (25 min), and a cool-down (10 min) Dongeui qigong treatment for 12 weeks is not significantly effective in prehypertension and mild hypertension compared with no treatment
  1. Data are presented in mean ± standard deviation or (minimum value, maximum value), T Treatment group, C control group