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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of respondents

From: Disclosure of herbal medicine use to health care providers among pregnant women in Nepal: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Total
n = 241 (%)
Disclosed HM use
n = 132 (%)
Did not disclose
n = 109 (%)
P-value
Age (years)
 < 20 43 (17.8) 19 (14.4) 24 (22.0) 0.220
 21–30 170 (70.5) 99 (75.0) 71 (65.1)  
 ≥ 31 28 (11.6) 14 (10.6) 14 (12.8)  
Education level
 Primary and under 126 (52.3) 54 (40.9) 72 (66.1) < 0.001
 Secondary 77 (32.0) 54 (40.9) 23 (21.1)  
 College or above 38 (15.8) 24 (18.2) 14 (12.8)  
Employment status
 Yes 44 (18.3) 32 (24.2) 12 (11.0) 0.008
 No 197 (81.7) 100 (75.8) 97 (89.0)  
Household income
 Low 72 (29.9) 30 (22.7) 42 (38.5) 0.015
 Middle 52 (21.6) 28 (21.2) 24 (22.0)  
 High 117 (48.5) 74 (56.1) 43 (39.4)  
Residence
 Rural 115 (47.7) 49 (37.1) 66 (60.6) < 0.001
 Urban 126 (52.3) 83 (62.9) 43 (39.4)  
Perceived health status
 Fair/worse 66 (27.4) 30 (22.7) 36 (33.0) 0.074
 Good 175 (72.6) 102 (77.3) 73 (67.0)  
Pregnancy term
 Pre term 21 (8.7) 10 (7.6) 11 (10.1) 0.491
 Full term 220 (91.3) 122 (92.4) 98 (89.9)  
Type of delivery
 Normal 150 (62.2) 90 (68.2) 60 (55.0) 0.036
 Caesarian 91 (37.8) 42 (31.8) 49 (45.0)  
ANC visits
 ≤ 3 times 30 (12.4) 7 (5.3) 23 (21.1) < 0.001
 4 or more 211 (87.6) 125 (94.7) 86 (78.9)  
Birth weight
 < 2.5 kg 39 (16.2) 19 (14.4) 20 (18.3) 0.249
 2.5–3.0 kg 111 (46.1) 57 (43.2) 54 (49.5)  
 > 3.0 kg 91 (37.8) 56 (42.4) 35 (32.1)  
Complications during pregnancy
 Yes 86 (35.7) 43 (32.6) 43 (39.4) 0.268
 No 155 (64.3) 89 (67.4) 66 (60.6)  
Complications during and after child birthª
 Yes 101 (41.9) 43 (32.6) 58 (53.2) 0.001
 No 140 (58.1) 89 (67.4) 51 (46.8)  
Newborn complications*
 Yes 35 (14.5) 13 (9.8) 22 (20.2) 0.023
 No 206 (85.5) 119 (90.2) 87 (79.8)  
Congenital malformations/ birth defects on newborn
 Yes 7 (2.9) 2 (1.5) 5 (4.6) 0.158
 No 234 (97.1) 130 (98.5) 104 (95.4)  
  1. ªProlonged labor, fetal distress, abnormal presentation, hypertension, postpartum hemorrhage, etc.
  2. *Lethargy, breathing problems, fever, neonatal jaundice, etc.