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Table 2 Comparison of cancer cell viability treated with 1 mg/mL aril water extract after 24 h from Vietnam (Southern, Central and Northern), Thailand and Australia using CCK-8 assay. Fisher’s LSD values were generated from un-transformed cell viability data of MM418C1 (df = 14, F = 10.42, p = 0.000), D24 (df = 14, F = 15.58, p = 0.000) and MCF7 (df = 14, F = 2.22, p = 0.069) cell lines. The results were averages of three individual experiments which were performed in duplicate

From: Anticancer activity of Momordica cochinchinensis (red gac) aril and the impact of varietal diversity

Fruit origin Viability of cancer cells (Average % + SE)
Country Region MM148C1 D24 MCF7
Vietnam (VS) Can Tho 127.5 + 10.4* 102.4 + 3.5†† 98.1 + 17.4
Vinh Long 130.6 + 8.1* 99.5 + 5.3†† 102.6 + 12.1
HCM City 123.5 + 14.3* 97.4 + 6.5 100.4 + 15.1
Vietnam (VN) Hung Yen 35.7 + 5.5* 52.7 + 3.3 74.5 + 1.1
Ha Noi 28.9 + 2.4* 39.9 + 1.1†† 49.9 + 0.8
Hoa Binh 113.3 + 14.2* 71.7 + 0.9 101.3 + 4.8
Vietnam (VC) Lam Dong 30.9 + 3.3* 45.5 + 1.7†† 62.3 + 4.3
Lam Dong 44.2 + 8.6 57.0 + 3.9†† 67.7 + 6.5
Lam Ha 109.9 + 13.9* 85.3 + 9.8†† 116.6 + 11.4
Thailand (TH) Nakhon Pathom 106.1 + 7.0 102.4 + 3.4 71.2 + 4.5
Samut Prakan 84.1 + 11.1 51.8 + 3.4 75.3 + 3.8
Chiang Mai 76.9 + 4.1* 50.3 + 2.0 78.7 + 4.3
Australia (AU) Newcastle 62.1 + 5.7* 39.8 + 5.1†† 84.5 + 1.9
Newcastle 79.3 + 3.8* 49.2 + 0.04 74.4 + 5.4
Newcastle 77.1 + 0.8 48.0 + 0.9 75.7 + 1.4
  1. VS Southern Vietnam, VN Northern Vietnam, VC Central Vietnam
  2. *, †† and †: statistical significance at p ≤ 0.05 on cell viability of MM418C, D24 and MCF7, respectively based on fruit collection sites